GasLab Gas in a Box (Perspective Demo)

GasLab Gas in a Box (Perspective Demo) preview image

1 collaborator

Uri_dolphin3 Uri Wilensky (Author)

Tags

gaslab 

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner over 6 years ago

particles 

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner over 6 years ago

Model group CCL | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (CCL)
Model was written in NetLogo 5.0.4 • Viewed 123 times • Downloaded 12 times • Run 0 times
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globals
[
  tick-delta                                 ;; how much we advance the tick counter this time through
  max-tick-delta                             ;; the largest tick-delta is allowed to be
  box-edge                                   ;; distance of box edge from axes
  init-avg-speed init-avg-energy             ;; initial averages
  avg-speed avg-energy                       ;; current averages
  fast medium slow                           ;; current counts
  percent-slow percent-medium percent-fast   ;; percentage of current counts
]

breed [ particles particle ]
breed [ flashes flash ]
flashes-own [birthday]

particles-own
[
  speed mass energy          ;; particle info
  last-collision
]

to setup
  clear-all
  set-default-shape particles "circle"
  set-default-shape flashes "plane"
  set max-tick-delta 0.1073
  ;; the box size is determined by the slider
  set box-edge (round (max-pxcor * box-size / 100))
  make-box
  make-particles
  update-variables
  set init-avg-speed avg-speed
  set init-avg-energy avg-energy
  reset-ticks
end 

to update-variables
  set medium count particles with [color = green]
  set slow   count particles with [color = blue]
  set fast   count particles with [color = red]
  set percent-medium (medium / ( count particles )) * 100
  set percent-slow (slow / (count particles)) * 100
  set percent-fast (fast / (count particles)) * 100
  set avg-speed  mean [speed] of particles
  set avg-energy mean [energy] of particles
end 

to go
  ask particles [ bounce ]
  ask particles [ move ]
  ask particles
  [ if collide? [check-for-collision] ]
  ifelse trace?
  [ ask first sort particles [ pen-down ] ]
  [ ask first sort particles [ pen-up ] ]
  tick-advance tick-delta
  if floor ticks > floor (ticks - tick-delta)
  [
    update-variables
  ]
  calculate-tick-delta
  ask flashes with [ticks - birthday > 0.4]
    [ die ]
  display
end 

to calculate-tick-delta
  ;; tick-delta is calculated in such way that even the fastest
  ;; particle will jump at most 1 patch length when we advance the tick counter.
  ;; As particles jump (speed * tick-delta) at every clock tick, making
  ;; tick length the inverse of the speed of the fastest particle
  ;; (1/max speed) assures that. Having each particle advance at most
  ;; one patch-length is necessary for it not to "jump over" a wall
  ;; or another particle.
  ifelse any? particles with [speed > 0]
    [ set tick-delta min list (1 / (ceiling max [speed] of particles)) max-tick-delta ]
    [ set tick-delta max-tick-delta ]
end 

to bounce  ;; particle procedure
  ;; get the coordinates of the patch we'll be on if we go forward 1
  let new-patch patch-ahead 1
  let new-px [pxcor] of new-patch
  let new-py [pycor] of new-patch
  ;; if we're not about to hit a wall, we don't need to do any further checks
  if not shade-of? yellow [pcolor] of new-patch
    [ stop ]
  ;; if hitting left or right wall, reflect heading around x axis
  if (abs new-px = box-edge)
    [ set heading (- heading) ]
  ;; if hitting top or bottom wall, reflect heading around y axis
  if (abs new-py = box-edge)
    [ set heading (180 - heading)]

  ask patch new-px new-py
  [ sprout-flashes 1 [
      set color pcolor - 2
      set birthday ticks
      set heading 0
    ]
  ]
end 

to move  ;; particle procedure
  if patch-ahead (speed * tick-delta) != patch-here
    [ set last-collision nobody ]
  jump (speed * tick-delta)
end 

to check-for-collision  ;; particle procedure
  ;; Here we impose a rule that collisions only take place when there
  ;; are exactly two particles per patch.  We do this because when the
  ;; student introduces new particles from the side, we want them to
  ;; form a uniform wavefront.
  ;;
  ;; Why do we want a uniform wavefront?  Because it is actually more
  ;; realistic.  (And also because the curriculum uses the uniform
  ;; wavefront to help teach the relationship between particle collisions,
  ;; wall hits, and pressure.)
  ;;
  ;; Why is it realistic to assume a uniform wavefront?  Because in reality,
  ;; whether a collision takes place would depend on the actual headings
  ;; of the particles, not merely on their proximity.  Since the particles
  ;; in the wavefront have identical speeds and near-identical headings,
  ;; in reality they would not collide.  So even though the two-particles
  ;; rule is not itself realistic, it produces a realistic result.  Also,
  ;; unless the number of particles is extremely large, it is very rare
  ;; for three or more particles to land on the same patch (for example,
  ;; with 400 particles it happens less than 1% of the time).  So imposing
  ;; this additional rule should have only a negligible effect on the
  ;; aggregate behavior of the system.
  ;;
  ;; Why does this rule produce a uniform wavefront?  The particles all
  ;; start out on the same patch, which means that without the only-two
  ;; rule, they would all start colliding with each other immediately,
  ;; resulting in much random variation of speeds and headings.  With
  ;; the only-two rule, they are prevented from colliding with each other
  ;; until they have spread out a lot.  (And in fact, if you observe
  ;; the wavefront closely, you will see that it is not completely smooth,
  ;; because some collisions eventually do start occurring when it thins out while fanning.)

  if count other particles-here = 1
  [
    ;; the following conditions are imposed on collision candidates:
    ;;   1. they must have a lower who number than my own, because collision
    ;;      code is asymmetrical: it must always happen from the point of view
    ;;      of just one particle.
    ;;   2. they must not be the same particle that we last collided with on
    ;;      this patch, so that we have a chance to leave the patch after we've
    ;;      collided with someone.
    let candidate one-of other particles-here with
      [who < [who] of myself and myself != last-collision]
    ;; we also only collide if one of us has non-zero speed. It's useless
    ;; (and incorrect, actually) for two particles with zero speed to collide.
    if (candidate != nobody) and (speed > 0 or [speed] of candidate > 0)
    [
      collide-with candidate
      set last-collision candidate
      ask candidate [ set last-collision myself ]
    ]
  ]
end 

;; implements a collision with another particle.
;;
;; THIS IS THE HEART OF THE PARTICLE SIMULATION, AND YOU ARE STRONGLY ADVISED
;; NOT TO CHANGE IT UNLESS YOU REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU'RE DOING!
;;
;; The two particles colliding are self and other-particle, and while the
;; collision is performed from the point of view of self, both particles are
;; modified to reflect its effects. This is somewhat complicated, so I'll
;; give a general outline here:
;;   1. Do initial setup, and determine the heading between particle centers
;;      (call it theta).
;;   2. Convert the representation of the velocity of each particle from
;;      speed/heading to a theta-based vector whose first component is the
;;      particle's speed along theta, and whose second component is the speed
;;      perpendicular to theta.
;;   3. Modify the velocity vectors to reflect the effects of the collision.
;;      This involves:
;;        a. computing the velocity of the center of mass of the whole system
;;           along direction theta
;;        b. updating the along-theta components of the two velocity vectors.
;;   4. Convert from the theta-based vector representation of velocity back to
;;      the usual speed/heading representation for each particle.
;;   5. Perform final cleanup and update derived quantities.

to collide-with [ other-particle ] ;; particle procedure
  ;;; PHASE 1: initial setup

  ;; for convenience, grab some quantities from other-particle
  let mass2 [mass] of other-particle
  let speed2 [speed] of other-particle
  let heading2 [heading] of other-particle

  ;; since particles are modeled as zero-size points, theta isn't meaningfully
  ;; defined. we can assign it randomly without affecting the model's outcome.
  let theta (random-float 360)



  ;;; PHASE 2: convert velocities to theta-based vector representation

  ;; now convert my velocity from speed/heading representation to components
  ;; along theta and perpendicular to theta
  let v1t (speed * cos (theta - heading))
  let v1l (speed * sin (theta - heading))

  ;; do the same for other-particle
  let v2t (speed2 * cos (theta - heading2))
  let v2l (speed2 * sin (theta - heading2))



  ;;; PHASE 3: manipulate vectors to implement collision

  ;; compute the velocity of the system's center of mass along theta
  let vcm (((mass * v1t) + (mass2 * v2t)) / (mass + mass2) )

  ;; now compute the new velocity for each particle along direction theta.
  ;; velocity perpendicular to theta is unaffected by a collision along theta,
  ;; so the next two lines actually implement the collision itself, in the
  ;; sense that the effects of the collision are exactly the following changes
  ;; in particle velocity.
  set v1t (2 * vcm - v1t)
  set v2t (2 * vcm - v2t)



  ;;; PHASE 4: convert back to normal speed/heading

  ;; now convert my velocity vector into my new speed and heading
  set speed sqrt ((v1t ^ 2) + (v1l ^ 2))
  set energy (0.5 * mass * speed ^ 2)
  ;; if the magnitude of the velocity vector is 0, atan is undefined. but
  ;; speed will be 0, so heading is irrelevant anyway. therefore, in that
  ;; case we'll just leave it unmodified.
  if v1l != 0 or v1t != 0
    [ set heading (theta - (atan v1l v1t)) ]

  ;; and do the same for other-particle
  ask other-particle [
    set speed sqrt ((v2t ^ 2) + (v2l ^ 2))
    set energy (0.5 * mass * (speed ^ 2))
    if v2l != 0 or v2t != 0
      [ set heading (theta - (atan v2l v2t)) ]
  ]


  ;; PHASE 5: final updates

  ;; now recolor, since color is based on quantities that may have changed
  recolor
  ask other-particle
    [ recolor ]
end 

to recolor  ;; particle procedure
  ifelse speed < (0.5 * 10)
  [
    set color blue
  ]
  [
    ifelse speed > (1.5 * 10)
      [ set color red ]
      [ set color green ]
  ]
end 


;;;
;;; drawing procedures
;;;

;; draws the box

to make-box
  ask patches with [ ((abs pxcor = box-edge) and (abs pycor <= box-edge)) or
                     ((abs pycor = box-edge) and (abs pxcor <= box-edge)) ]
    [ set pcolor yellow ]
end 

;; creates initial particles

to make-particles
  create-particles number-of-particles
  [
    setup-particle
    random-position
    recolor
  ]
  calculate-tick-delta
end 

to setup-particle  ;; particle procedure
  set speed init-particle-speed
  set mass particle-mass
  set energy (0.5 * mass * speed * speed)
  set last-collision nobody
end 

;; place particle at random location inside the box.

to random-position ;; particle procedure
  setxy ((1 - box-edge) + random-float ((2 * box-edge) - 2))
        ((1 - box-edge) + random-float ((2 * box-edge) - 2))
end 

to-report last-n [n the-list]
  ifelse n >= length the-list
    [ report the-list ]
    [ report last-n n butfirst the-list ]
end 


; Copyright 1997 Uri Wilensky.
; See Info tab for full copyright and license.

There are 6 versions of this model.

Uploaded by When Description Download
Uri Wilensky about 6 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0.4 Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 6 years ago Updated version tag Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 7 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky about 9 years ago Model from NetLogo distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky about 9 years ago GasLab Gas in a Box (Perspective Demo) Download this version

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