Daisyworld

Daisyworld preview image

2 collaborators

Uri_dolphin3 Uri Wilensky (Author)
Default-person Michael Novak (Author)

Tags

biology 

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner almost 6 years ago

Model group CCL | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (CCL)
Model was written in NetLogo 5.0.4 • Viewed 848 times • Downloaded 43 times • Run 1 time
Download the 'Daisyworld' modelDownload this modelEmbed this model

Do you have questions or comments about this model? Ask them here! (You'll first need to log in.)


WHAT IS IT?

This model explores the "Gaia hypothesis", which considers the Earth as a single, self-regulating system including both living and non-living parts. In particular, this model explores how living organisms both alter and are altered by climate, which is non-living. The example organisms are daisies and the climatic factor considered is temperature.

Daisyworld is a world filled with two different types of daisies: black daisies and white daisies. They differ in albedo, which is how much energy they absorb as heat from sunlight. White daisies have a high surface albedo and thus reflect light and heat, thus cooling the area around them. Black daisies have a low surface albedo and thus absorb light and heat, thus heating the area around them. However, there is only a certain temperature range in which daisies can reproduce; if the temperature around a daisy is outside of this range, the daisy will produce no offspring and eventually die of old age.

When the climate is too cold it is necessary for the black daisies to propagate in order to raise the temperature, and vice versa -- when the climate is too warm, it is necessary for more white daisies to be produced in order to cool the temperature. For a wide range of parameter settings, the temperature and the population of daisies will eventually stabilize. However, it is possible for Daisyworld to get either too hot or too cold, in which case the daisies are not able to bring the temperature back under control and all of the daisies will eventually die.

HOW IT WORKS

White daisies, black daisies, and open ground (empty patches) each have an albedo or percentage of energy they absorb as heat from sunlight. Sunlight energy can be changed with the SOLAR-LUMINOSITY slider (a value of 1.0 simulates the average solar luminosity of our sun).

Each time step, every patch will calculate the temperature at that spot based on (1) the energy absorbed by the daisy at that patch and (2) the diffusion of 50% of the temperature value at that patch between its neighbors. Open ground patches that are adjacent to a daisy have a probability of sprouting a daisy that is the same color as the neighboring daisy, based on a parabolic probability function that depends on the local temperature (where an optimum temperature of 22.5 yields a maximum probability of 100% of sprouting a new daisy). Daisies age each step of the simulation until they reach a maximum age, at which point they die and the patch they were in becomes open.

HOW TO USE IT

START-%-WHITES and START-%-BLACKS sets the starting percentage of the patches that will be occupied by daisies (of either color) after pressing SETUP.

Selecting PAINT-DAISIES-AS and pressing PAINT-DAISIES allows the user to draw or erase daisies in the VIEW, by left clicking on patches.

ALBEDO-OF-WHITES and ALBEDO-OF-BLACKS sets the amount of heat absorbed by each of these daisy colors. ALBEDO-OF-SURFACE sets the amount of heat absorbed by an empty patch.

The SOLAR-LUMINOSITY sets the amount of incident energy on each patch from sunlight. But this value only will stay fixed at the user set value if the SCENARIO chooser is set to "maintain current luminosity". Other values of this chooser will change the albedo values. For example "ramp-up-ramp-down" will start the solar luminosity at a low value, then start increasing it to a high value, and then bring it back down again over the course of a model run.

SHOW-TEMP-MAP? shows a color map of temperature at each patch. Light red represents hotter temperatures, and darker red represents colder temperatures.

THINGS TO NOTICE

Run the simulation. What happens to the daisies? Do the populations ever remain stable? Are there ever population booms and busts? If so, what causes them? (Hint: how do the daisies affects the climate? How does the climate then affect the daisies?)

What happens if boom and bust cycles just keep getting bigger and bigger? The swings can't keep getting bigger forever.

Does the planet ever become completely filled with life, or completely devoid of life?

Try running the simulation without the daisies. What happens to the planet's temperature? How is it different from what happens with the daisies?

Can the Daisyworld system be said to exhibit "hysteresis"? Hysteresis is a property of systems that do not instantly follow the forces applied to them, but react slowly, or do not return completely to their original state. The state of such systems depend on their immediate history.

THINGS TO TRY

Try running the model with SHOW-DAISIES? off and SHOW-TEMP-MAP? on. You might be able to see interesting spatial patterns that emerge in temperature concentrations and periodic redistricting of temperature regions more easily in this mode.

Try adjusting the fixed temperature diffusion setting in the procedures (change it from 0.5). What happens to the behavior of Daisyworld if temperature is never diffused (set to 0.0)?

EXTENDING THE MODEL

Black and white daisies represent two extreme types of daisies that could exist in this world. Implement a third species of daisy. You will need to choose what your daisy does and how it is different from black and white daisies. How does your new daisy affect the results of this model?

Sunlight is only one aspect that controls the growth of daisies and other forms of life. Change the model so different parts of the world have different levels of soil quality. How will this affect the outcome?

Many people feel that the Gaia hypothesis can be disturbed by human causes. Implement pollution in the model. Does this cause the daisies to die off quicker or more often?

Can you think of any other ways in which living organisms both alter and are altered by their environment?

NETLOGO FEATURES

Uses the diffuse primitive to distribute heat between patches.

RELATED MODELS

An alternate Daisyworld model is listed on the User Community Models page. It uses patches only, no turtles.

CREDITS AND REFERENCES

The Daisyworld model was first proposed and implemented by Lovelock and Andrew Watson. The original Gaia hypothesis is due to Lovelock.

Watson, A.J., and J.E. Lovelock, 1983, "Biological homeostasis of the global environment: the parable of Daisyworld", Tellus 35B, 286-289. (The original paper by Watson and Lovelock introducing the Daisyworld model.)

http://www.carleton.edu/departments/geol/DaveSTELLA/Daisyworld/daisyworld_model.htm

HOW TO CITE

If you mention this model in a publication, we ask that you include these citations for the model itself and for the NetLogo software:

  • Novak, M. and Wilensky, U. (2006). NetLogo Daisyworld model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Daisyworld. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
  • Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2006 Uri Wilensky.

CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Commercial licenses are also available. To inquire about commercial licenses, please contact Uri Wilensky at uri@northwestern.edu.

Comments and Questions

Click to Run Model

globals [
  max-age               ;; maximum age that all daisies live to
  global-temperature    ;; the average temperature of the patches in the world
  num-blacks            ;; the number of black daisies
  num-whites            ;; the number of white daisies
  scenario-phase        ;; interval counter used to keep track of what portion of scenario is currently occurring
  ]

breed [daisies daisy]

patches-own [temperature]  ;; local temperature at this location

daisies-own [
  age       ;; age of the daisy
  albedo    ;; fraction (0-1) of energy absorbed as heat from sunlight
]


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Setup Procedures ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to setup
  clear-all
  set-default-shape daisies "flower"
  ask patches [ set pcolor gray ]

  set max-age 25
  set global-temperature 0

  if (scenario = "ramp-up-ramp-down"    ) [ set solar-luminosity 0.8 ]
  if (scenario = "low solar luminosity" ) [ set solar-luminosity 0.6 ]
  if (scenario = "our solar luminosity" ) [ set solar-luminosity 1.0 ]
  if (scenario = "high solar luminosity") [ set solar-luminosity 1.4 ]

  seed-blacks-randomly
  seed-whites-randomly
  ask daisies [set age random max-age]
  ask patches [calc-temperature]
  set global-temperature (mean [temperature] of patches)
  update-display
  reset-ticks
end 

to seed-blacks-randomly
   ask n-of round ((start-%-blacks * count patches) / 100) patches with [not any? daisies-here]
     [ sprout-daisies 1 [set-as-black] ]
end 

to seed-whites-randomly
   ask n-of floor ((start-%-whites * count patches) / 100) patches with [not any? daisies-here]
     [ sprout-daisies 1 [set-as-white] ]
end 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Runtime Procedures ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to go
   ask patches [calc-temperature]
   diffuse temperature .5
   ask daisies [check-survivability]
   set global-temperature (mean [temperature] of patches)
   update-display
   tick
   if (scenario = "ramp-up-ramp-down")
   [
     if (ticks > 200 and ticks <= 400) [set solar-luminosity solar-luminosity + 0.005]
     if (ticks > 600 and ticks <= 850) [set solar-luminosity solar-luminosity - 0.0025]
   ]
   if (scenario = "low solar luminosity")  [set solar-luminosity 0.6 ]
   if (scenario = "our solar luminosity")  [set solar-luminosity 1.0 ]
   if (scenario = "high solar luminosity") [set solar-luminosity 1.4 ]
end 

to set-as-black ;; turtle procedure
  set color black
  set albedo albedo-of-blacks
  set age 0
  set size 0.6
end 

to set-as-white  ;; turtle procedure
  set color white
  set albedo albedo-of-whites
  set age 0
  set size 0.6
end 

to check-survivability ;; turtle procedure
  let seed-threshold 0
  let not-empty-spaces nobody
  let seeding-place nobody

  set age (age + 1)
  ifelse age < max-age
  [
     set seed-threshold ((0.1457 * temperature) - (0.0032 * (temperature ^ 2)) - (0.6443))
     ;; This equation may look complex, but it is just a parabola.
     ;; This parabola has a peak value of 1 -- the maximum growth factor possible at an optimum
     ;; temperature of 22.5 degrees C
     ;; -- and drops to zero at local temperatures of 5 degrees C and 40 degrees C. [the x-intercepts]
     ;; Thus, growth of new daisies can only occur within this temperature range,
     ;; with decreasing probability of growth new daisies closer to the x-intercepts of the parabolas
     ;; remember, however, that this probability calculation is based on the local temperature.

     if (random-float 1.0 < seed-threshold) [
       set seeding-place one-of neighbors with [not any? daisies-here]

       if (seeding-place != nobody)
       [
         if (color = white)
         [
           ask seeding-place [sprout-daisies 1 [set-as-white]  ]
         ]
         if (color = black)
         [
           ask seeding-place [sprout-daisies 1 [set-as-black]  ]
         ]
       ]
     ]
  ]
  [die]
end 

to calc-temperature  ;; patch procedure
  let absorbed-luminosity 0
  let local-heating 0
  ifelse not any? daisies-here
  [   ;; the percentage of absorbed energy is calculated (1 - albedo-of-surface) and then multiplied by the solar-luminosity
      ;; to give a scaled absorbed-luminosity.
    set absorbed-luminosity ((1 - albedo-of-surface) * solar-luminosity)
  ]
  [
      ;; the percentage of absorbed energy is calculated (1 - albedo) and then multiplied by the solar-luminosity
      ;; to give a scaled absorbed-luminosity.
    ask one-of daisies-here
      [set absorbed-luminosity ((1 - albedo) * solar-luminosity)]
  ]
  ;; local-heating is calculated as logarithmic function of solar-luminosity
  ;; where a absorbed-luminosity of 1 yields a local-heating of 80 degrees C
  ;; and an absorbed-luminosity of .5 yields a local-heating of approximately 30 C
  ;; and a absorbed-luminosity of 0.01 yields a local-heating of approximately -273 C
  ifelse absorbed-luminosity > 0
      [set local-heating 72 * LN(absorbed-luminosity) + 80]
      [set local-heating 80]
  set temperature ((temperature + local-heating) / 2)
     ;; set the temperature at this patch to be the average of the current temperature and the local-heating effect
end 

to paint-daisies   ;; daisy painting procedure which uses the mouse location draw daisies when the mouse button is down
  if mouse-down?
  [
    ask patch mouse-xcor mouse-ycor [
      ifelse not any? daisies-here
      [
        if paint-daisies-as = "add black"
          [sprout-daisies 1 [set-as-black]]
        if paint-daisies-as = "add white"
          [sprout-daisies 1 [set-as-white]]
      ]
      [
        if paint-daisies-as = "remove"
          [ask daisies-here [die]]
      ]
      display  ;; update view
    ]
  ]
end 

to update-display
  ifelse (show-temp-map? = true)
    [ ask patches [set pcolor scale-color red temperature -50 110] ]  ;; scale color of patches to the local temperature
    [ ask patches [set pcolor grey] ]

  ifelse (show-daisies? = true)
    [ ask daisies [set hidden? false] ]
    [ ask daisies [set hidden? true] ]
end 


; Copyright 2006 Uri Wilensky.
; See Info tab for full copyright and license.

There are 15 versions of this model.

Uploaded by When Description Download
Uri Wilensky about 6 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0.4 Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 6 years ago Updated version tag Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 6 years ago Updated to version from NetLogo 5.0.3 distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 7 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Model from NetLogo distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Model from NetLogo distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Daisyworld Download this version

Attached files

File Type Description Last updated
Daisyworld.png preview Preview for 'Daisyworld' about 6 years ago, by Uri Wilensky Download

This model does not have any ancestors.

This model does not have any descendants.