Traffic Grid

Traffic Grid preview image

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Uri_dolphin3 Uri Wilensky (Author)

Tags

social science 

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner over 5 years ago

Model group CCL | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (CCL)
Model was written in NetLogo 5.0.4 • Viewed 1136 times • Downloaded 59 times • Run 6 times
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WHAT IS IT?

You control traffic lights and overall variables, such as the speed limit and the number of cars, in a real-time traffic simulation. This allows you to explore traffic dynamics, which can lead into many areas of study, from calculus to social studies.

Try to develop strategies to improve traffic and to understand the different ways to measure the quality of traffic.

HOW IT WORKS

Each time step, the cars attempt to move forward at their current speed. If their current speed is less than the speed limit and there is no car directly in front of them, they accelerate. If there is a slower car in front of them, they match the speed of the slower car and decelerate. If there is a red light or a stopped car in front of them, they stop.

There are two different ways the lights can change. First, the user can change any light at any time by making the light current, and then clicking CHANGE LIGHT. Second, lights can change automatically, once per cycle. Initially, all lights will automatically change at the beginning of each cycle.

HOW TO USE IT

Change the traffic grid (using the sliders GRID-SIZE-X and GRID-SIZE-Y) to make the desired number of lights. Change any other of the settings that you would like to change. Press the SETUP button.

At this time, you may configure the lights however you like, with any combination of auto/manual and any phase. Changes to the state of the current light are made using the CURRENT-AUTO?, CURRENT-PHASE and CHANGE LIGHT controls. You may select the current intersection using the SELECT INTERSECTION control. See below for details.

Start the simulation by pressing the GO button. You may continue to make changes to the lights while the simulation is running.

Buttons

SETUP - generates a new traffic grid based on the current GRID-SIZE-X and GRID-SIZE-Y and NUM-CARS number of cars. This also clears all the plots. All lights are set to auto, and all phases are set to 0. GO - runs the simulation indefinitely CHANGE LIGHT - changes the direction traffic may flow through the current light. A light can be changed manually even if it is operating in auto mode. SELECT INTERSECTION - allows you to select a new "current" light. When this button is depressed, click in the intersection which you would like to make current. When you've selected an intersection, the "current" label will move to the new intersection and this button will automatically pop up.

Sliders

SPEED-LIMIT - sets the maximum speed for the cars NUM-CARS - the number of cars in the simulation (you must press the SETUP button to see the change) TICKS-PER-CYCLE - sets the number of ticks that will elapse for each cycle. This has no effect on manual lights. This allows you to increase or decrease the granularity with which lights can automatically change. GRID-SIZE-X - sets the number of vertical roads there are (you must press the SETUP button to see the change) GRID-SIZE-Y - sets the number of horizontal roads there are (you must press the SETUP button to see the change) CURRENT-PHASE - controls when the current light changes, if it is in auto mode. The slider value represents the percentage of the way through each cycle at which the light should change. So, if the TICKS-PER-CYCLE is 20 and CURRENT-PHASE is 75%, the current light will switch at tick 15 of each cycle.

Switches

POWER? - toggles the presence of traffic lights CURRENT-AUTO? - toggles the current light between automatic mode, where it changes once per cycle (according to CURRENT-PHASE), and manual, in which you directly control it with CHANGE LIGHT.

Plots

STOPPED CARS - displays the number of stopped cars over time AVERAGE SPEED OF CARS - displays the average speed of cars over time AVERAGE WAIT TIME OF CARS - displays the average time cars are stopped over time

THINGS TO NOTICE

When cars have stopped at a traffic light, and then they start moving again, the traffic jam will move backwards even though the cars are moving forwards. Why is this?

When POWER? is turned off and there are quite a few cars on the roads, "gridlock" usually occurs after a while. In fact, gridlock can be so severe that traffic stops completely. Why is it that no car can move forward and break the gridlock? Could this happen in the real world?

Gridlock can occur when the power is turned on, as well. What kinds of situations can lead to gridlock?

THINGS TO TRY

Try changing the speed limit for the cars. How does this affect the overall efficiency of the traffic flow? Are fewer cars stopping for a shorter amount of time? Is the average speed of the cars higher or lower than before?

Try changing the number of cars on the roads. Does this affect the efficiency of the traffic flow?

How about changing the speed of the simulation? Does this affect the efficiency of the traffic flow?

Try running this simulation with all lights automatic. Is it harder to make the traffic move well using this scheme than controlling one light manually? Why?

Try running this simulation with all lights automatic. Try to find a way of setting the phases of the traffic lights so that the average speed of the cars is the highest. Now try to minimize the number of stopped cars. Now try to decrease the average wait time of the cars. Is there any correlation between these different metrics?

EXTENDING THE MODEL

Currently, the maximum speed limit (found in the SPEED-LIMIT slider) for the cars is 1.0. This is due to the fact that the cars must look ahead the speed that they are traveling to see if there are cars ahead of them. If there aren't, they speed up. If there are, they slow down. Looking ahead for a value greater than 1 is a little bit tricky. Try implementing the correct behavior for speeds greater than 1.

When a car reaches the edge of the world, it reappears on the other side. What if it disappeared, and if new cars entered the city at random locations and intervals?

NETLOGO FEATURES

This model uses two forever buttons which may be active simultaneously, to allow the user to select a new current intersection while the model is running.

It also uses a chooser to allow the user to choose between several different possible plots, or to display all of them at once.

RELATED MODELS

Traffic Basic simulates the flow of a single lane of traffic in one direction Traffic 2 Lanes adds a second lane of traffic Traffic Intersection simulates a single intersection

The HubNet activity Gridlock has very similar functionality but allows a group of users to control the cars in a participatory fashion.

HOW TO CITE

If you mention this model in a publication, we ask that you include these citations for the model itself and for the NetLogo software:

  • Wilensky, U. (2003). NetLogo Traffic Grid model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/TrafficGrid. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
  • Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2003 Uri Wilensky.

CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Commercial licenses are also available. To inquire about commercial licenses, please contact Uri Wilensky at uri@northwestern.edu.

This model was created as part of the projects: PARTICIPATORY SIMULATIONS: NETWORK-BASED DESIGN FOR SYSTEMS LEARNING IN CLASSROOMS and/or INTEGRATED SIMULATION AND MODELING ENVIRONMENT. The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (REPP & ROLE programs) -- grant numbers REC #9814682 and REC-0126227.

Comments and Questions

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globals
[
  grid-x-inc               ;; the amount of patches in between two roads in the x direction
  grid-y-inc               ;; the amount of patches in between two roads in the y direction
  acceleration             ;; the constant that controls how much a car speeds up or slows down by if
                           ;; it is to accelerate or decelerate
  phase                    ;; keeps track of the phase
  num-cars-stopped         ;; the number of cars that are stopped during a single pass thru the go procedure
  current-light            ;; the currently selected light

  ;; patch agentsets
  intersections ;; agentset containing the patches that are intersections
  roads         ;; agentset containing the patches that are roads
]

turtles-own
[
  speed     ;; the speed of the turtle
  up-car?   ;; true if the turtle moves downwards and false if it moves to the right
  wait-time ;; the amount of time since the last time a turtle has moved
]

patches-own
[
  intersection?   ;; true if the patch is at the intersection of two roads
  green-light-up? ;; true if the green light is above the intersection.  otherwise, false.
                  ;; false for a non-intersection patches.
  my-row          ;; the row of the intersection counting from the upper left corner of the
                  ;; world.  -1 for non-intersection patches.
  my-column       ;; the column of the intersection counting from the upper left corner of the
                  ;; world.  -1 for non-intersection patches.
  my-phase        ;; the phase for the intersection.  -1 for non-intersection patches.
  auto?           ;; whether or not this intersection will switch automatically.
                  ;; false for non-intersection patches.
]


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Setup Procedures ;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; Initialize the display by giving the global and patch variables initial values.
;; Create num-cars of turtles if there are enough road patches for one turtle to
;; be created per road patch. Set up the plots.

to setup
  ca
  setup-globals

  ;; First we ask the patches to draw themselves and set up a few variables
  setup-patches
  make-current one-of intersections
  label-current

  set-default-shape turtles "car"

  if (num-cars > count roads)
  [
    user-message (word "There are too many cars for the amount of "
                       "road.  Either increase the amount of roads "
                       "by increasing the GRID-SIZE-X or "
                       "GRID-SIZE-Y sliders, or decrease the "
                       "number of cars by lowering the NUMBER slider.\n"
                       "The setup has stopped.")
    stop
  ]

  ;; Now create the turtles and have each created turtle call the functions setup-cars and set-car-color
  crt num-cars
  [
    setup-cars
    set-car-color
    record-data
  ]

  ;; give the turtles an initial speed
  ask turtles [ set-car-speed ]

  reset-ticks
end 

;; Initialize the global variables to appropriate values

to setup-globals
  set current-light nobody ;; just for now, since there are no lights yet
  set phase 0
  set num-cars-stopped 0
  set grid-x-inc world-width / grid-size-x
  set grid-y-inc world-height / grid-size-y

  ;; don't make acceleration 0.1 since we could get a rounding error and end up on a patch boundary
  set acceleration 0.099
end 

;; Make the patches have appropriate colors, set up the roads and intersections agentsets,
;; and initialize the traffic lights to one setting

to setup-patches
  ;; initialize the patch-owned variables and color the patches to a base-color
  ask patches
  [
    set intersection? false
    set auto? false
    set green-light-up? true
    set my-row -1
    set my-column -1
    set my-phase -1
    set pcolor brown + 3
  ]

  ;; initialize the global variables that hold patch agentsets
  set roads patches with
    [(floor((pxcor + max-pxcor - floor(grid-x-inc - 1)) mod grid-x-inc) = 0) or
    (floor((pycor + max-pycor) mod grid-y-inc) = 0)]
  set intersections roads with
    [(floor((pxcor + max-pxcor - floor(grid-x-inc - 1)) mod grid-x-inc) = 0) and
    (floor((pycor + max-pycor) mod grid-y-inc) = 0)]

  ask roads [ set pcolor white ]
  setup-intersections
end 

;; Give the intersections appropriate values for the intersection?, my-row, and my-column
;; patch variables.  Make all the traffic lights start off so that the lights are red
;; horizontally and green vertically.

to setup-intersections
  ask intersections
  [
    set intersection? true
    set green-light-up? true
    set my-phase 0
    set auto? true
    set my-row floor((pycor + max-pycor) / grid-y-inc)
    set my-column floor((pxcor + max-pxcor) / grid-x-inc)
    set-signal-colors
  ]
end 

;; Initialize the turtle variables to appropriate values and place the turtle on an empty road patch.

to setup-cars  ;; turtle procedure
  set speed 0
  set wait-time 0
  put-on-empty-road
  ifelse intersection?
  [
    ifelse random 2 = 0
    [ set up-car? true ]
    [ set up-car? false ]
  ]
  [
    ; if the turtle is on a vertical road (rather than a horizontal one)
    ifelse (floor((pxcor + max-pxcor - floor(grid-x-inc - 1)) mod grid-x-inc) = 0)
    [ set up-car? true ]
    [ set up-car? false ]
  ]
  ifelse up-car?
  [ set heading 180 ]
  [ set heading 90 ]
end 

;; Find a road patch without any turtles on it and place the turtle there.

to put-on-empty-road  ;; turtle procedure
  move-to one-of roads with [not any? turtles-on self]
end 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Runtime Procedures ;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; Run the simulation

to go

  update-current

  ;; have the intersections change their color
  set-signals
  set num-cars-stopped 0

  ;; set the turtles speed for this time thru the procedure, move them forward their speed,
  ;; record data for plotting, and set the color of the turtles to an appropriate color
  ;; based on their speed
  ask turtles
  [
    set-car-speed
    fd speed
    record-data
    set-car-color
  ]

  ;; update the phase and the global clock
  next-phase
  tick
end 

to choose-current
  if mouse-down?
  [
    let x-mouse mouse-xcor
    let y-mouse mouse-ycor
    if [intersection?] of patch x-mouse y-mouse
    [
      update-current
      unlabel-current
      make-current patch x-mouse y-mouse
      label-current
      stop
    ]
  ]
end 

;; Set up the current light and the interface to change it.

to make-current [light]
  set current-light light
  set current-phase [my-phase] of current-light
  set current-auto? [auto?] of current-light
end 

;; update the variables for the current light

to update-current
  ask current-light [
    set my-phase current-phase
    set auto? current-auto?
  ]
end 

;; label the current light

to label-current
  ask current-light
  [
    ask patch-at -1 1
    [
      set plabel-color black
      set plabel "current"
    ]
  ]
end 

;; unlabel the current light (because we've chosen a new one)

to unlabel-current
  ask current-light
  [
    ask patch-at -1 1
    [
      set plabel ""
    ]
  ]
end 

;; have the traffic lights change color if phase equals each intersections' my-phase

to set-signals
  ask intersections with [auto? and phase = floor ((my-phase * ticks-per-cycle) / 100)]
  [
    set green-light-up? (not green-light-up?)
    set-signal-colors
  ]
end 

;; This procedure checks the variable green-light-up? at each intersection and sets the
;; traffic lights to have the green light up or the green light to the left.

to set-signal-colors  ;; intersection (patch) procedure
  ifelse power?
  [
    ifelse green-light-up?
    [
      ask patch-at -1 0 [ set pcolor red ]
      ask patch-at 0 1 [ set pcolor green ]
    ]
    [
      ask patch-at -1 0 [ set pcolor green ]
      ask patch-at 0 1 [ set pcolor red ]
    ]
  ]
  [
    ask patch-at -1 0 [ set pcolor white ]
    ask patch-at 0 1 [ set pcolor white ]
  ]
end 

;; set the turtles' speed based on whether they are at a red traffic light or the speed of the
;; turtle (if any) on the patch in front of them

to set-car-speed  ;; turtle procedure
  ifelse pcolor = red
  [ set speed 0 ]
  [
    ifelse up-car?
    [ set-speed 0 -1 ]
    [ set-speed 1 0 ]
  ]
end 

;; set the speed variable of the turtle to an appropriate value (not exceeding the
;; speed limit) based on whether there are turtles on the patch in front of the turtle

to set-speed [ delta-x delta-y ]  ;; turtle procedure
  ;; get the turtles on the patch in front of the turtle
  let turtles-ahead turtles-at delta-x delta-y

  ;; if there are turtles in front of the turtle, slow down
  ;; otherwise, speed up
  ifelse any? turtles-ahead
  [
    ifelse any? (turtles-ahead with [ up-car? != [up-car?] of myself ])
    [
      set speed 0
    ]
    [
      set speed [speed] of one-of turtles-ahead
      slow-down
    ]
  ]
  [ speed-up ]
end 

;; decrease the speed of the turtle

to slow-down  ;; turtle procedure
  ifelse speed <= 0  ;;if speed < 0
  [ set speed 0 ]
  [ set speed speed - acceleration ]
end 

;; increase the speed of the turtle

to speed-up  ;; turtle procedure
  ifelse speed > speed-limit
  [ set speed speed-limit ]
  [ set speed speed + acceleration ]
end 

;; set the color of the turtle to a different color based on how fast the turtle is moving

to set-car-color  ;; turtle procedure
  ifelse speed < (speed-limit / 2)
  [ set color blue ]
  [ set color cyan - 2 ]
end 

;; keep track of the number of stopped turtles and the amount of time a turtle has been stopped
;; if its speed is 0

to record-data  ;; turtle procedure
  ifelse speed = 0
  [
    set num-cars-stopped num-cars-stopped + 1
    set wait-time wait-time + 1
  ]
  [ set wait-time 0 ]
end 

to change-current
  ask current-light
  [
    set green-light-up? (not green-light-up?)
    set-signal-colors
  ]
end 

;; cycles phase to the next appropriate value

to next-phase
  ;; The phase cycles from 0 to ticks-per-cycle, then starts over.
  set phase phase + 1
  if phase mod ticks-per-cycle = 0
    [ set phase 0 ]
end 


; Copyright 2003 Uri Wilensky.
; See Info tab for full copyright and license.

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Uri Wilensky over 8 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 8 years ago Model from NetLogo distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 8 years ago Traffic Grid Download this version

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