GasLab With Sound

GasLab With Sound preview image

1 collaborator

Uri_dolphin3 Uri Wilensky (Author)

Tags

gaslab 

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner about 6 years ago

particles 

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner about 6 years ago

Model group CCL | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (CCL)
Model was written in NetLogo 5.0.4 • Viewed 157 times • Downloaded 12 times • Run 1 time
Download the 'GasLab With Sound' modelDownload this modelEmbed this model

Do you have questions or comments about this model? Ask them here! (You'll first need to log in.)


Comments and Questions

Click to Run Model

extensions [ sound ]

globals
[
  tick-delta                 ;; how much we advance the tick counter this time through
  max-tick-delta             ;; the largest tick-delta is allowed to be
  box-edge                   ;; distance of box edge from axes
  pressure
  pressure-history
  zero-pressure-count        ;; how many zero entries are in pressure-history
  wall-hits-per-particle     ;; average number of wall hits per particle
  particles-to-add
  new-particles              ;; agentset of particles added via add-particles-middle
  message-shown?             ;; whether we've shown the warning message yet
  length-horizontal-surface  ;; the size of the wall surfaces that run horizontally - the top and bottom of the box
  length-vertical-surface    ;; the size of the wall surfaces that run vertically - the left and right of the box
  three-speed                ;; current speed of particle 3 (music addition)
  pressure-now               ;; current pressure (music addition
]

breed [ particles particle ]
breed [ flashes flash ]

flashes-own [birthday]

particles-own
[
  speed mass                 ;; particle info
  wall-hits                  ;; # of wall hits during this clock cycle ("big tick")
  momentum-difference        ;; used to calculate pressure from wall hits
  last-collision
  new?                       ;; used to build the new-particles agentset; this is
                             ;; only ever set to true by add-particles-middle
]

to startup
  set message-shown? false
end 

to setup
  sound:stop-music  ;; start music by closing previous one
  let tmp message-shown?
  ca
  set message-shown? tmp
  set-default-shape particles "circle"
  set-default-shape flashes "square"
  set particles-to-add 0
  ;; box has constant size...
  set box-edge (max-pxcor - 1)
  ;;; the length of the horizontal or vertical surface of
  ;;; the inside of the box must exclude the two patches
  ;; that are the where the perpendicular walls join it,
  ;;; but must also add in the axes as an additional patch
  ;;; example:  a box with a box-edge of 10, is drawn with
  ;;; 19 patches of wall space on the inside of the box
  set length-horizontal-surface  ( 2 * (box-edge - 1) + 1)
  set length-vertical-surface  ( 2 * (box-edge - 1) + 1)
  make-box
  make-particles initial-number
  set pressure-history []
  set zero-pressure-count 0
  reset-ticks
  set pressure-now pressure ;; setup for current pressure
  set three-speed [speed] of particle 3  ;; setup for current particle speed
end 

to go
  if not single-particle-speed? and three-speed > 0  ;; making sure that particle speed is sung only when switch is on
        [ sound:stop-note "oboe" (80 - 120 / ( three-speed ))
          sound:stop-note "oboe" 50 ]
  if not pressure? and pressure > 0  ; making sure that pressure is sung only when switch is on
        [ sound:stop-note "recorder" ( 100 - 2000 / pressure )
          sound:stop-note "recorder" 20 ]
  if single-particle-speed?
     [ ask particle 3  ;; asking particle 3 to sing, changes note when speed changes, taking care of clock = 0
         [
           ifelse  ((abs (speed - three-speed) > 0 ) )
                     or (abs (speed - three-speed ) = speed )
              [ sing-one-particle-speed ]
              [ ifelse ticks > 0
                [ stop ]
                [ sound:start-note "oboe" (80 - 120 / ( [speed] of particle 3 )) single-particle-loudness - 10]
               ]
          ]
      ]
  if real-time? [ sing-real-time ]  ;; sing the real time ticker
  ask particles
      [ set new? false ]
  ask particles [ bounce ]
  ask particles [ move ]
  ask particles
    [ check-for-collision ]
  add-particles-side
  tick-advance tick-delta
  if floor ticks > floor (ticks - tick-delta)
      [ ifelse any? particles
          [ set wall-hits-per-particle mean [wall-hits] of particles ]
          [ set wall-hits-per-particle 0 ]
  ask particles
          [ set wall-hits 0 ]
  calculate-pressure
  update-plots
  if model-time? [ sound:play-note "nylon string guitar" 26 83 0.1 ] ] ;; sing model time
  calculate-tick-length
  ask flashes with [ticks - birthday > 0.4]
      [ set pcolor yellow
        die ]
  ifelse (single-particle-speed? or single-particle-collisions? or single-particle-wall-hits? )  ;; single particle speed is traced
      [ ask particle 3 [ pd ] ]
      [ ask particle 3 [ pu ] ]
  fade-patches ;; if the single particle is tracing, then the trace disappears after a while
end 

to calculate-tick-length
  ifelse any? particles with [speed > 0]
    [ set tick-delta 1 / (ceiling max [speed] of particles) ]
    [ set tick-delta 1 ]
end 

;;; Pressure is defined as the force per unit area.  In this context,
;;; that means the total momentum per unit time transferred to the walls
;;; by particle hits, divided by the surface area of the walls.  (Here
;;; we're in a two dimensional world, so the "surface area" of the walls
;;; is just their length.)  Each wall contributes a different amount
;;; to the total pressure in the box, based on the number of collisions, the
;;; direction of each collision, and the length of the wall.  Conservation of momentum
;;; in hits ensures that the difference in momentum for the particles is equal to and
;;; opposite to that for the wall.  The force on each wall is the rate of change in
;;; momentum imparted to the wall, or the sum of change in momentum for each particle:
;;; F = SUM  [d(mv)/dt] = SUM [m(dv/dt)] = SUM [ ma ], in a direction perpendicular to
;;; the wall surface.  The pressure (P) on a given wall is the force (F) applied to that
;;; wall over its surface area.  The total pressure in the box is sum of each wall's
;;; pressure contribution.

to calculate-pressure
  ;; by summing the momentum change for each particle,
  ;; the wall's total momentum change is calculated
  set pressure 15 * sum [momentum-difference] of particles
  set pressure-history lput pressure pressure-history
  set zero-pressure-count length filter [? = 0] pressure-history
  ask particles
    [ set momentum-difference 0 ]  ;; once the contribution to momentum has been calculated
                                   ;; this value is reset to zero till the next wall hit
  ifelse pressure? ;; when pressure changes, it sings
    [ sing-pressure ]
    [ ifelse pressure-now > 0
      [ sound:stop-note "recorder" ( 100 - 2000 / pressure-now )
        sound:stop-note "recorder" ( 30 ) ]
      [ stop ]
    ]
end 

to bounce  ;; particle procedure
  let tone heading
  ;; if we're not about to hit a wall (yellow patch), or if we're already on a
  ;; wall, we don't need to do any further checks
  if shade-of? yellow pcolor or not shade-of? yellow [pcolor] of patch-at dx dy
    [ stop ]
  ;; get the coordinates of the patch we'll be on if we go forward 1
  let new-px round (xcor + dx)
  let new-py round (ycor + dy)
  ;; if hitting left or right wall, reflect heading around x axis
  if (abs new-px = box-edge)
    [ set heading (- heading)
      set wall-hits wall-hits + 1
      if (wall-hits?) [ sound:play-note "celesta" tone wall-hits-loudness 0.15 ] ;; when a particle hits the wall there's  sound (macro)
      if (single-particle-wall-hits? and who = 3) ;; when a particle hits the wall there's  sound (micro)
        [ ask particle 3 [ pd ] sound:play-note "clavi" ( 30 + heading / 5 ) wall-hits-loudness 0.2 ]

  ;;  if the particle is hitting a vertical wall, only the horizontal component of the speed
  ;;  vector can change.  The change in velocity for this component is 2 * the speed of the particle,
  ;; due to the reversing of direction of travel from the collision with the wall
      set momentum-difference momentum-difference + (abs (dx * 2 * mass * speed) / length-vertical-surface)
    ]
  ;; if hitting top or bottom wall, reflect heading around y axis
  if (abs new-py = box-edge)
    [ set heading (180 - heading)
      set wall-hits wall-hits + 1
      if wall-hits? [ sound:play-note "celesta" heading  single-particle-loudness 0.1 ]
  if (single-particle-wall-hits? and who = 3)
     [ ask particle 3 [ pd ] sound:play-note "clavi" ( 30 + heading / 5 ) single-particle-loudness 0.1 ]

  ;;  if the particle is hitting a horizontal wall, only the vertical component of the speed
  ;;  vector can change.  The change in velocity for this component is 2 * the speed of the particle,
  ;; due to the reversing of direction of travel from the collision with the wall
      set momentum-difference momentum-difference + (abs (dy * 2 * mass * speed) / length-horizontal-surface)  ]
  ask patch new-px new-py
    [ sprout-flashes 1 [ ht
                         set birthday ticks
                         set pcolor yellow - 3 ] ]
end 

to move  ;; particle procedure
  if patch-ahead (speed * tick-delta) != patch-here
    [ set last-collision nobody ]
  jump (speed * tick-delta)
end 

to check-for-collision  ;; particle procedure

  ;; Here we impose a rule that collisions only take place when there
  ;; are exactly two particles per patch.  We do this because when the
  ;; student introduces new particles from the side, we want them to
  ;; form a uniform wavefront.
  ;;
  ;; Why do we want a uniform wavefront?  Because it is actually more
  ;; realistic.  (And also because the curriculum uses the uniform
  ;; wavefront to help teach the relationship between particle collisions,
  ;; wall hits, and pressure.)
  ;;
  ;; Why is it realistic to assume a uniform wavefront?  Because in reality,
  ;; whether a collision takes place would depend on the actual headings
  ;; of the particles, not merely on their proximity.  Since the particles
  ;; in the wavefront have identical speeds and near-identical headings,
  ;; in reality they would not collide.  So even though the two-particles
  ;; rule is not itself realistic, it produces a realistic result.  Also,
  ;; unless the number of particles is extremely large, it is very rare
  ;; for three or more particles to land on the same patch (for example,
  ;; with 400 particles it happens less than 1% of the time).  So imposing
  ;; this additional rule should have only a negligible effect on the
  ;; aggregate behavior of the system.
  ;;
  ;; Why does this rule produce a uniform wavefront?  The particles all
  ;; start out on the same patch, which means that without the only-two
  ;; rule, they would all start colliding with each other immediately,
  ;; resulting in much random variation of speeds and headings.  With
  ;; the only-two rule, they are prevented from colliding with each other
  ;; until they have spread out a lot.  (And in fact, if you observe
  ;; the wavefront closely, you will see that it is not completely smooth,
  ;; because some collisions eventually do start occurring when it thins out while fanning.)

  if count other particles-here = 1
  [
    ;; the following conditions are imposed on collision candidates:
    ;;   1. they must have a lower who number than my own, because collision
    ;;      code is asymmetrical: it must always happen from the point of view
    ;;      of just one particle.
    ;;   2. they must not be the same particle that we last collided with on
    ;;      this patch, so that we have a chance to leave the patch after we've
    ;;      collided with someone.
    let candidate one-of other particles-here with
      [who < [who] of myself and myself != last-collision]
    ;; we also only collide if one of us has non-zero speed. It's useless
    ;; (and incorrect, actually) for two particles with zero speed to collide.
    if (candidate != nobody) and (speed > 0 or [speed] of candidate > 0)
    [
      collide-with candidate
      set last-collision candidate
      ask candidate [ set last-collision myself ]
      if collisions? ;; make a sound when there's a collision that is a function of the sum of their speeds (macro)
        [ sound:play-note "telephone ring" 2 * ([speed] of self + [speed] of candidate) collisions-loudness 0.15 ]
      if (single-particle-collisions? and ( who = 3 or [who] of candidate = 3 )) ;; make a sound when there's a collision that is a function of the sum of their speeds (micro)
         [ ask particle 3 [ pd ] sound:play-note "glockenspiel" 69 single-particle-loudness + 40 0.2 ]

    ]
  ]
end 

;; implements a collision with another particle.
;;
;; THIS IS THE HEART OF THE PARTICLE SIMULATION, AND YOU ARE STRONGLY ADVISED
;; NOT TO CHANGE IT UNLESS YOU REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU'RE DOING!
;;
;; The two particles colliding are self and other-particle, and while the
;; collision is performed from the point of view of self, both particles are
;; modified to reflect its effects. This is somewhat complicated, so I'll
;; give a general outline here:
;;   1. Do initial setup, and determine the heading between particle centers
;;      (call it theta).
;;   2. Convert the representation of the velocity of each particle from
;;      speed/heading to a theta-based vector whose first component is the
;;      particle's speed along theta, and whose second component is the speed
;;      perpendicular to theta.
;;   3. Modify the velocity vectors to reflect the effects of the collision.
;;      This involves:
;;        a. computing the velocity of the center of mass of the whole system
;;           along direction theta
;;        b. updating the along-theta components of the two velocity vectors.
;;   4. Convert from the theta-based vector representation of velocity back to
;;      the usual speed/heading representation for each particle.
;;   5. Perform final cleanup and update derived quantities.

to collide-with [ other-particle ] ;; particle procedure

  ;; local copies of other-particle's relevant quantities
  ;mass2 speed2 heading2

  ;; quantities used in the collision itself
  ;theta   ;; heading of vector from my center to the center of other-particle.
  ;v1t     ;; velocity of self along direction theta
  ;v1l     ;; velocity of self perpendicular to theta
  ;v2t v2l ;; velocity of other-particle, represented in the same way
  ;vcm     ;; velocity of the center of mass of the colliding particles,
           ;;   along direction theta

  ;;; PHASE 1: initial setup

  ;; for convenience, grab some quantities from other-particle
  let mass2 [mass] of other-particle
  let speed2 [speed] of other-particle
  let heading2 [heading] of other-particle

  ;; since particles are modeled as zero-size points, theta isn't meaningfully
  ;; defined. we can assign it randomly without affecting the model's outcome.
  let theta (random-float 360)



  ;;; PHASE 2: convert velocities to theta-based vector representation

  ;; now convert my velocity from speed/heading representation to components
  ;; along theta and perpendicular to theta
  let v1t (speed * cos (theta - heading))
  let v1l (speed * sin (theta - heading))

  ;; do the same for other-particle
  let v2t (speed2 * cos (theta - heading2))
  let v2l (speed2 * sin (theta - heading2))



  ;;; PHASE 3: manipulate vectors to implement collision

  ;; compute the velocity of the system's center of mass along theta
  let vcm (((mass * v1t) + (mass2 * v2t)) / (mass + mass2) )

  ;; now compute the new velocity for each particle along direction theta.
  ;; velocity perpendicular to theta is unaffected by a collision along theta,
  ;; so the next two lines actually implement the collision itself, in the
  ;; sense that the effects of the collision are exactly the following changes
  ;; in particle velocity.
  set v1t (2 * vcm - v1t)
  set v2t (2 * vcm - v2t)



  ;;; PHASE 4: convert back to normal speed/heading

  ;; now convert my velocity vector into my new speed and heading
  set speed sqrt ((v1t * v1t) + (v1l * v1l))
  ;; if the magnitude of the velocity vector is 0, atan is undefined. but
  ;; speed will be 0, so heading is irrelevant anyway. therefore, in that
  ;; case we'll just leave it unmodified.
  if v1l != 0 or v1t != 0
    [ set heading (theta - (atan v1l v1t)) ]

  ;; and do the same for other-particle
  ask other-particle [
    set speed sqrt ((v2t * v2t) + (v2l * v2l))
    if v2l != 0 or v2t != 0
      [ set heading (theta - (atan v2l v2t)) ]
  ]


  ;; PHASE 5: final updates

  ;; now recolor, since color is based on quantities that may have changed
  recolor
  ask other-particle
    [ recolor ]
end 

to recolor  ;; particle procedure
  ifelse speed < (0.5 * 10)
  [
    set color blue
  ]
  [
    ifelse speed > (1.5 * 10)
      [ set color red ]
      [ set color green ]
  ]
end 

;;;
;;; drawing procedures
;;;

;; draws the box

to make-box
  ask patches with [ ((abs pxcor = box-edge) and (abs pycor <= box-edge)) or
                     ((abs pycor = box-edge) and (abs pxcor <= box-edge)) ]
    [ set pcolor yellow ]
  ask patches with [pycor = 0 and pxcor < (1 - box-edge)]
  [
    set pcolor yellow - 5  ;; trick the bounce code so particles don't go into the inlet
    ask patch-at 0  1 [ set pcolor yellow ]
    ask patch-at 0 -1 [ set pcolor yellow ]
  ]
end 

;; creates initial particles

to make-particles [number]
  create-particles number
  [
    setup-particle
    set speed random-float 20
    random-position
    recolor
  ]
  calculate-tick-length
end 

;; adds particles from the left

to add-particles-side
  if particles-to-add > 0
    [ create-particles particles-to-add
        [ setup-particle
          setxy (- box-edge) 0
          set heading 90 ;; east
          rt 45 - random-float 90
          recolor

        ]
      if announce-add-particles? [ sound:play-note "tubular bells" 59 90 0.3 ]  ;;  announce when particles are added
      set particles-to-add 0
      calculate-tick-length
    ]
end 

;; called by student from command center;
;; adds particles in middle

to add-particles-middle [n]
  create-particles n
    [ setup-particle
      set new? true
      recolor ]
  ;; add the new particles to an agentset, so they
  ;; are accessible to the student from the command
  ;; center, e.g. "ask new-particles [ ... ]"
  set new-particles particles with [new?]
  calculate-tick-length
end 

to setup-particle  ;; particle procedure
  set new? false
  set speed 10
  set mass 1.0
  set last-collision nobody
  set wall-hits 0
  set momentum-difference 0
end 

;; place particle at random location inside the box.

to random-position ;; particle procedure
  setxy ((1 - box-edge) + random-float ((2 * box-edge) - 2))
        ((1 - box-edge) + random-float ((2 * box-edge) - 2))
end 

to-report last-n [n the-list]
 ifelse n >= length the-list
   [ report the-list ]
   [ report last-n n butfirst the-list ]
end 

to fade-patches
  let trace-patches patches with [ shade-of? pcolor red or shade-of? pcolor  blue or shade-of? pcolor green ]
  if any? trace-patches
    [ ask trace-patches
      [ set pcolor ( pcolor - 0.05 )
        if (pcolor mod 10 < 1)
          [ set pcolor black ] ] ]
end 

to sing-one-particle-speed     ;; procedure for listening to one particle's speed - tone is a function of speed
   ifelse single-particle-speed?
      [  ifelse (three-speed > 3)
             [ sound:stop-note "oboe" (80 - 120 / ( three-speed ))
               sound:stop-note "oboe" 50
               sound:start-note "oboe" (80 - 120 / ( [speed] of particle 3 )) single-particle-loudness
             ]
             [
               sound:stop-note "oboe" (80 - 120 / ( three-speed ))
               sound:stop-note "oboe" 50
               sound:start-note "oboe" 50 single-particle-loudness + 20
             ]
               set three-speed [speed] of particle 3
       ]
       [
         ifelse (three-speed > 3)
           [ sound:stop-note "oboe" (80 - 120 / ( three-speed ))]
           [ sound:stop-note "oboe" 50 ]
       ]
end 

to sing-real-time ;; real time is drummed at a regular interval
       every real-time-pacer [ sound:play-note "sci-fi" 30 60 0.3 ]
end 

to sing-pressure  ;;  pressure is sung by a recorder with the tone a function of pressure
  if ( abs ( pressure-now - pressure ) > 0 and pressure-now != 0)
          [ sound:stop-note "recorder" ( 100 - 2000 / pressure-now )
            sound:stop-note "recorder" ( 30 ) ]
  set pressure-now pressure
  ifelse (pressure > 30 )
        [ sound:start-note "recorder" ( 100 - 2000 / pressure ) pressure-loudness ]
        [ sound:start-note "recorder" ( 30 ) pressure-loudness + 10 ]
end 


; Copyright 2004 Uri Wilensky.
; See Info tab for full copyright and license.

There are 10 versions of this model.

Uploaded by When Description Download
Uri Wilensky about 6 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0.4 Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 6 years ago Updated version tag Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 7 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky about 9 years ago Model from NetLogo distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky about 9 years ago GasLab With Sound Download this version
Uri Wilensky about 9 years ago GasLab With Sound Download this version

Attached files

File Type Description Last updated
GasLab With Sound.png preview Preview for 'GasLab With Sound' about 6 years ago, by Uri Wilensky Download

This model does not have any ancestors.

This model does not have any descendants.