# Social Network of Sensors

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## WHAT IS IT?

This model allow users to simulate sensor networks with both mobile and static sensors.

It allows different spatial distributions and mobility models thus enabling many possible combinations.

## HOW IT WORKS

The simulator deploy some mobile and/or static sensors with specified parameters. Howecer, most parameters are related only to mobile sensors to define the mobility model. GO procedure then ask mobile sensors to move. Sensors look each tick for the event in their radius and if they find one they start spreading it to other sensors according to the chosen forwarding protocol. Simulation stop when the event is reported to the sink or after a given time.

## HOW TO USE IT

SINK-LOCATION and EVENT-LOCATION set where to deploy the sink and the even if any.

MOBILE-SENSOR-DISTRIBUTION and STATIC-SENSOR-DISTRIBUTION are the spatial deployment distribution of the respective kind of sensors.

MOBILE-RADIUS and STATIC-RADIUS is the radius of the sensors. Mobile sensors can have a different radius than static one to simulate different technologies or power constraints.

TYPE-OF-WALK set the distrbution of jump length:

* Simple (Wiener) set jump length to 1 and simulate Brownian motion.

* Correlated direction has a jump length of 1 but directions are correlated by the parameter STDEV.

* Exponential has jump length distributed as an exponential distribution of parameter LAMBDA.

* Rayleight Flight is according to Mandelbrot definition a random walk with jump length distributed according to a normal distribution with standard deviation STDEV.

* Cauchy Flight is a random walk with jump length distributed according to standard Cauchy distribution.

* Levy flight is a random walk with jump length distributed according to power-law distribution with parameter ALPHA.

* Levy with exponential cutoff is a random walk with jump length distributed according to power-law distribution with exponential cutoff and parameters ALPHA and CUTOFF-LENGTH.

PREFERENTIAL-RETURN implements the preferential return according to

C. Song, T. Koren, P. Wang, and A.-L. Barabasi, “Modeling the scaling properties of human mobility”, with parameters RO and GAMMA.

and

Barbosa, Hugo, et al. "The Effect of Recency to Human Mobility." EPJ Data Science 4.1 (2015): 21. DOI: 10.1140/epjds/s13688-015-0059-8 (2015), with parameters LAMBDA (for the probability to return to a recently visited location) and NU (for the zipfian recency rank distribution).

BACK-TO-HOME ask sensors to come back to original deployment position every BACK-TIME ticks (e.g., every night people come back home to sleep).

WAIT-TIME enable power-law waiting time between jumps with parameter BETA and exponential cutoff CUTOFF-TIME.

TRAINING-TIME variable is used to allow a warmup period in case the simulations should start at a steady state.

ROUTING imlement several routing protocols for MANETs, both peer to peer or not.

When set to "DoNothing" the simulator keep tracks of Dunbar's estimate in the SNoS, without forwarding any message, thus the simulation should stop through another condition (e.g., time):

* SpreadingToStrongOrWeakTies spread information to strong or weak ties depending on DATASPREADINGTO variable.

* ExtractingFriendshipRelations is used to extract the ties between sensors but it will not forward any information. It relies on PINIT, T_D, and AGING parameters according to Mahmood, Basim, Marcello Tomasini, and Ronaldo Menezes. "Social-Driven Information Dissemination for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors & Transducers 189.6 (2015):1.

* Epidemic protocol will let any sensor to forward the information to every other sensor, basically flooding the network.

* Probabilistic Flooding is like epidemic, but the forwarding will happen only with probability less than DELTA.

* Gradient will forward infromation following a gradiend based on the time of last encounter of the sink, as proposed in Dubois-Ferriere, Henri, Matthias Grossglauser, and Martin Vetterli. "Age matters: efficient route discovery in mobile ad hoc networks using encounter ages." Proceedings of the 4th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing. ACM, 2003.

* PRoPHET will forward information with the parameters PINIT, PAGING, and TRANS (for transitivity) according to Lindgren, Anders, Avri Doria, and Olov Schelén. "Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks." ACM SIGMOBILE mobile computing and communications review 7.3 (2003): 19-20.

* Spray & Wait and Binary Spray & Wait will forward L copies of information according to Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos, Konstantinos Psounis, and Cauligi S. Raghavendra. "Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks." Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Delay-tolerant networking. ACM, 2005.

Notes:

* when one of EVENT-LOCATION or SINK-LOCATION is set to diagonal the other one must be set to diagonal too. Then the parameter DIAG-DIST is taken in account as the distance between event and sink on the diagonal.

* simulator implements a boolean sensing network.

* normal, exponential and power-law distributions start from the center of the envelope and are truncated to fit the envelope. Sensors that fall outside are re-deployed untill they are inside the envelope.

* ALPHA and BETA parameters are in the form (1+alpha) and (1+beta). e.g., if your scaling parameter is 0.55 then you must set alpha to 1.55.

* Enabling Levy walk with exponential cutoff and WAIT-TIME and PREFERENTIAL-RETURN allow to use Song's et al. human mobility model.

* Enabling Levy walk and WAIT-TIME allow to simulate (approximately) a CTRW (Continuos Time Random Walk).

* the distribution parameter LAMBDA is used in the preferential return model to control the probability to do a return to a recently visited location. Note that it corresponds to the alpha parameter in the paper by Barbosa et al.

## THINGS TO NOTICE

Each plot and monitor has interesting things to compare between different mobility models.

## THINGS TO TRY

This is up to your fantasy.

## EXTENDING THE MODEL

Enable support for more than one event or sink.

## NETLOGO FEATURES

To let the simulator run as fast as possible NetLogo lists have been extensively used.

## CREDITS AND REFERENCES

This simulator is an effort to implement some of the most recent human mobility models that are based on random walk like processes. They are especially useful to simulate the spreading of information in contact based networks, like mobile sensor networks, and disease spreading processes.

Results that can be obtained by this simulator can be seen in:

Tomasini, Marcello, Franco Zambonelli, and Ronaldo Menezes. "Using patterns of social dynamics in the design of social networks of sensors." Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), 2013 IEEE and Internet of Things (iThings/CPSCom), IEEE International Conference on and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing. IEEE, 2013.

Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GreenCom-iThings-CPSCom.2013.125

Tomasini, Marcello, et al. "Evaluating the Performance of Social Networks of Sensors under Different Mobility Models." Social Computing (SocialCom), 2013 International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.

Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SocialCom.2013.62

Mahmood, Basim, Marcello Tomasini, and Ronaldo Menezes. "Social-Driven Information Dissemination for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors & Transducers 189.6 (2015):1.

Available: http://www.sensorsportal.com/HTML/DIGEST/june_2015/Vol_189/P_2666.pdf

Tomasini, Marcello, et al. "On the effect of human mobility to the design of metropolitan mobile opportunistic networks of sensors." Pervasive and Mobile Computing (2017).

Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmcj.2016.12.007

## Comments and Questions

extensions [profiler] breed [ sensors sensor ] breed [ events event ] globals [ current-showing ; current sensor layer showed nmessages ; number of exchanged messages dist ; The distance of spreading from the center of the environment excor ; Save x cordinate of the sensors that get the event eycor ; Save y cordinate of the sensors that get the event n-degree total ; for test purposes CDT ;; Cumulative Dynamic Threshold strong-estimate ; The estimated number of strong ties weak-estimate ; The estimated number of weak ties reported ; flag to stop the simulation if the event has been reported to the sink training ; flag to let the simulation run if we are under the training time ] patches-own [ ;; keep track of how many times the patch has been covered ;; that is, how many times fell in sensor radius (but might not be visited!) overlapping ] ;; these variables are available for sensors and events turtles-own [ ;; virtual coordinates home-x home-y current-x current-y ] ;; sensor specific variables sensors-own [ jump-size ;; length of the jump waiting-time ;; time to wait before the next jump mobile ;; True if the sensor is mobile sink ;; True if the sensor is the sink found ;; True if has knowledge of the event sensor-radius ;; radius of the sensor displacement ;; sum of displacements from the home position Pnew ;; probability of a new jump. We need this for plotting visited-locations ;; list of visited locations with the frequency S ;; keep track of the number of disctinct visited locations sum-of-frequencies ;; keep track of the sum of the visited location (number of jumps) allmeet ;; Time of Last Encounter list ;; in Gradient (FRESH) routing is the time of last encounter of the sink ;; in DoNothing is the time of last encounter of other sensors TLE ;; message copies to spray in [Binary] Spray & Wait routing nMC ;; This list should be used to store probabilities or related quantities ;; Delivery Predictability metric in PROPHET routing ;; Encounter frequency in YAP and DoNothing P ;; Cumulative Score of Device d; ;; Barry Lavelle, Daragh Byrne, Cathal Gurrin, Alan F. Smeaton, Gareth J.F. Jones ;; "Bluetooth Familiarity: Methods of Calculation, Applications and Limitations." CS_d ;; total probability delivery of a sensor in YAP Pdelivery ;; OPTIMIZATION: keep track of the sum of encounter frequencies (for YAP) F ;; Total intervals where device d is present. I_d ;; Dunbar's Number D Ti-list; The history of encounter of sensor i CSTi ; The list of Strong Ties CWTi ; The list of Weak Ties strong-ties ;Strong Ties Estimate weak-ties ;Weak Ties Estimate ] to setup clear-all set-default-shape events "x" set-default-shape sensors "triangle" set current-showing -1 ;; show-next display sensor 0 set reported false ;; event has not been reported yet ;============================= Deploy Sensors ============================= ;; deploy sensor first so their agent number start from 0 to avoid problems with sensor-index deploy-sensors mobile-sensor-distribution n-of-mobile-sensors ask sensors [ set mobile true set S 1 ;; the first location is the sensor's "home" ] deploy-sensors static-sensor-distribution n-of-static-sensors ask sensors with [ mobile = 0 ] [ set mobile false ] ;; we need to do this since NetLogo defaults variables to 0 ;; WATCH-OUT!!! If you deploy sensors in a lattice then the actual number of them might have been changed by deploy-sensors procedure ;; so we set n-of-mobile-sensors and n-of-static-sensors to the actual value set n-of-mobile-sensors count sensors with [mobile] set n-of-static-sensors count sensors with [not mobile] ;; WATCH-OUT!!! Sinks MUST be deployed before events since the who variable is used as index in P deploy sink-location "sink" 1 deploy event-location "event" 1 ;============================= Intialize Sensors' State ============================= ask sensors [ set size 2 ;; size 2 is cached by netlogo, so it will run faster! set found false set home-x current-x set home-y current-y setxy current-x current-y ;; send sensors to "home" ifelse (mobile = true) [ set shape "person" set color green set sensor-radius mobile-radius set sum-of-frequencies 0 set displacement 0 ;; [initial-patch-index frequence visit-time] set frequence = 0 because it is updated to 1 at first move call. set visited-locations n-values 1 [(list (p-index pxcor pycor) 0 0)] ] [ set color violet set sensor-radius static-radius ] ] ask sensors with [sink = true] [ set shape "flag" set color yellow set size 2 set mobile false ] ask events [ set color red set size 2 ] ;============================= Initialize Protocol Variables ============================= ;; some protocols need to consider the sink as a special node, others do not consider sinks ask sensors [ ;; Time of Last Encounter is used by Gradient (FRESH), PRoPHET, and DoNothing protocols set TLE n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors + n-of-static-sensors + 1) [0] ;; [Binary] Spray & Wait OR 2000000000000 & Wait set nMC 0 ;; PRoPHET protocol if Routing = "PRoPHET" [ set P n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors + n-of-static-sensors + 1) [0] ;; P(A,x) set P replace-item who P 1 ;; P(A,A) = 1 ] if Routing = "ExtractingFriendshipRelations" [ set P n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ;; [F(A,x)] set CS_d n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ;; [CS_d(A,d)] set I_d n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ;; [I_d(A,d)] ] if Routing = "SpreadingToStrongOrWeakTies" [ set Ti-list [] ;; The List of Encounter Frequencies set CSTi [] ;; The List of Strong Ties set CWTi [] ;; The List of Weak Ties set strong-estimate []; The list of strong ties estimate set weak-estimate [] ;The list of weak ties estimate set strong-ties 0 ;The estimated number of strong ties set weak-ties 0 ;The estimated number of weak ties ] if Routing = "DoNothing" [ set P n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ;; [F(A,x)] set CS_d n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ;; [CS_d(A,d)] set I_d n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ;; [I_d(A,d)] ] ] ;; these kind of walks are incompatible with Song's model, so disable it!!! if (type-of-walk = "Brownian motion (Wiener)") or (type-of-walk = "correlated directions") [ set preferential-return false ] ;; If training time is set, let's the model warm up before starting the simulation reset-ticks ; initialize tick counter set training false if Training-Time > 0 [ set training true repeat Training-Time [go] set training false ;; reset the overlapping so that % of area covered start from 0% ask patches [ set overlapping 0 ] ;; reset sensor state ask sensors with [ mobile ] [ ; send sensors back to home so that they reflect the initial spatial distribution set current-x home-x set current-y home-y setxy home-x home-y set displacement 0 set jump-size 0 set waiting-time 0 ; set time of last visit to 0 because ticks starts back from 0 set visited-locations map [(list (item 0 ?) (item 1 ?) 0)] visited-locations ] ] clear-all-plots ; so the initial state is the state of the model after warm up reset-ticks end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; Deployment Functions ;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; to deploy [place-in which number] if (place-in = "none") [ set number 0 ] ;; do not deploy sinks or events if (which = "event" and number > 1 and event-location != "random") [ error "Only random deployment is supported in multi event environment" ] if (which = "sink" and number > 1 and sink-location != "random") [ error "Only random deployment is supported in multi sink environment" ] if (event-location = "diagonal") xor (sink-location = "diagonal") [ error "Both event and sink must be on diagonal" ] repeat number [ let x 0 let y 0 if place-in = "random"[ set x random-xcor set y random-ycor ] if place-in = "center"[ if (any? sensors with [sink = true and xcor = 0 and ycor = 0]) or (any? events with [xcor = 0 and ycor = 0]) [ error "You cannot have both event and sink in the center" ] set x 0 set y 0 ] if place-in = "corner"[ let corners (list max-pxcor max-pycor min-pxcor min-pycor) ;; since there are only 4 corners it's highly probable an overlap of target and sink, so we check to avoid it! set x one-of corners set y one-of corners while [(any? sensors with [sink = true and xcor = x and ycor = y]) or (any? events with [xcor = x and ycor = y])] [ set x one-of corners set y one-of corners ] ] if place-in = "diagonal" [ let diag 0 ifelse diag-dist > 1 [ set diag (sqrt ((world-width - 1) ^ 2 + (world-height - 1) ^ 2)) ][ error "Please specify a greater distance" ] ifelse (diag - diag-dist) > 0 [ ;; we put sink and target equally distant from corners let cosine (world-width - 1) * (diag - diag-dist) / (2 * diag) let sine (world-height - 1) * (diag - diag-dist) / (2 * diag) if which = "event" [ set x min-pxcor + cosine set y min-pycor + sine ] if which = "sink" [ set x max-pxcor - cosine set y max-pycor - sine ] ][ error "Distance between sink and event is higher than length of diagonal" ] ] if which = "event" [create-events 1 [setxy x y]] if which = "sink" [ create-sensors 1 [ set current-x x set current-y y set sink true ] ] ];;END of repeat number end to deploy-sensors [ sensor-distribution n-of-sensors ] if n-of-sensors = 0 [stop] if sensor-distribution = "lattice" [ if (n-of-sensors < 4) [ error "You need at least 4 sensors!" ] let x-side floor sqrt(n-of-sensors) let x-increment (max-pxcor - min-pxcor) / (x-side - 1) let y-side ceiling (n-of-sensors / x-side) let y-increment (max-pycor - min-pycor) / (y-side - 1) let x min-pxcor let y min-pycor repeat y-side [ repeat x-side [ create-sensors 1 [ set current-x x set current-y y ] set x x + x-increment ] set y y + y-increment set x min-pxcor ] ] ;; END "lattice" if sensor-distribution = "uniform" [ create-sensors n-of-sensors [ set current-x random-xcor set current-y random-ycor ] ] if sensor-distribution = "exponential" or sensor-distribution = "normal" or sensor-distribution = "power-law" [ let next-one FALSE create-sensors n-of-sensors [ let hypotenuse 0 while [ not next-one ] [ set heading random-float 360 if sensor-distribution = "exponential" [ ;; we want 1 - e^(-lambda * world-width / 2) = 0.95; we pass the mean mu = 1 / lambda set hypotenuse exponential (- 0.5 * world-width / ln (1 - 0.95)) ] if sensor-distribution = "normal" [ ;; We want 2*sigma = world-width / 2 => P(X <= world-width / 2) = 0.954499736104 ;; 3*sigma => 0.997300203937 set hypotenuse Rayleigh (0.5 * world-width / 2) ] if sensor-distribution = "power-law" [ ;; P (X > x) = x^(1-alpha) = 0.05 => x = (1/0.05)^(1/(alpha-1)) = world-width / 2 ;; => alpha = 1 + 1 / (log (world-width / 2) (1 / 0.05)) set hypotenuse Levy ( 1 + 1 / (log (world-width / 2) (1 / 0.05)) ) ] if not (patch-at-heading-and-distance heading hypotenuse = nobody) [ set next-one true ] ] set current-x hypotenuse * dx set current-y hypotenuse * dy set next-one FALSE ] ] end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## to go ;; if simulation is running ripristinate overlapping layer if (current-showing >= 0) [ display-overlapping-layer ] if (Routing = "Gradient") and (sink-location != "none") [ ;; TLE of sinks is always the most recent (that is, the time elapsed from the last encounter is 0) ask sensors with [sink = true] [set TLE replace-item who TLE ticks] ] ;profiler:start ask sensors with [ mobile ] [ move ] ;profiler:stop ;; WATCH OUT!!! Do NOT use WITH-hack here because we need sensors to check in a random (not synchronized) order!!! ;profiler:start ask sensors [ if not training [ if (event-location != "none") and (not found) and (any? events in-radius sensor-radius) [ set nMC L ;; if sensor found an event then spray L copies set found true set color red ] if (sink-location != "none") and (found) and (any? sensors with [sink = true] in-radius sensor-radius) [ set nMC 0 set reported true ;; if we reach the sink simulation should stop, so exit from ask sensors stop ] ] ;; Forward events towards the sink accordingly to the chosen algorithm ; let route-date out of if not training to let sensors update their delivery probabilities ;profiler:start route-data ;profiler:stop ] ;;END ask sensors if Routing = "ExtractingFriendshipRelations" [ set CDT (ticks ^ (1 / 3)) ;update Cumulatyve Dynamic Threshold ] ;; if the event has been reported to a sink then stop the simulation if reported [stop] tick end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; Move Functions ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; to move if (jump-size <= 0) ;and (waiting-time <= 0) ;a new flight must be chosen (note that waiting-time will be always = 0 if wait-time is false) [ let sensor-index who ;; we MUST do all this here because only the destination of the travel count for displacement, ;; location frequencies and preferential return!!! set displacement ( displacement + sqrt ((home-x - current-x) ^ 2 + (home-y - current-y) ^ 2) ) set sum-of-frequencies sum-of-frequencies + 1 ;; the following code is doing the same operation as ;; ask patch-here [ set frequencies replace-item sensor-index frequencies (item sensor-index frequencies + 1) ] ;; but more efficiently let patch-index (p-index pxcor pycor) ;let v-loc array:from-list visited-locations let location-index position patch-index (n-values (length visited-locations) [ item 0 (item ? visited-locations)] ) ;let location-index position patch-index (n-values (array:length v-loc) [ item 0 (array:item v-loc ?)] ) ifelse location-index != false [ set visited-locations replace-item location-index visited-locations (list patch-index (item 1 (item location-index visited-locations) + 1) ticks) ;array:set v-loc location-index (list patch-index (item 1 (array:item v-loc location-index) + 1)) ;set visited-locations array:to-list v-loc ] [ set visited-locations lput (list patch-index 1 ticks) visited-locations ] ifelse preferential-return [ ;; avoid use of (count patches with [ item sensor-index frequencies > 0 ] ) ^ (- gamma) for better performance ;set Pnew ro * (S ^ (- gamma)) ifelse ( random-float 1 < ro * (S ^ (- gamma)) ) [ ;; if true Explore let newLocation patch-here while [ (newLocation = nobody) or ;( member? (patch-at-heading-and-distance heading jump-size) ([self] of patches with [ item sensor-index frequencies > 0 ]) ) member? ( p-index ([pxcor] of newLocation) ([pycor] of newLocation) ) (n-values (length visited-locations) [ item 0 (item ? visited-locations)] ) ][ ;; we want a new location!!! That is, a patch not visited before set heading random-float 360 set jump-size FlightLength set newLocation patch-at-heading-and-distance heading jump-size ] set S S + 1 ] [ ;; else do a Return jump ifelse (random-float 1 < lambda) [ do-frequency-return ][ do-recency-return ] ] ][ while [ ((patch-at-heading-and-distance heading jump-size) = nobody) or (jump-size = 0)] [ ifelse type-of-walk != "correlated directions" [ set heading random-float 360 ] [ rt random-normal 0 stdev-angle ] set jump-size FlightLength ] ] if wait-time [ set waiting-time round Levy-cutoff beta (1 / cutoff-time) ] ] ;; END if jump-size <= 0 ;; sensors go back "home" at regular time steps (e.g., 24h-48h-72h) if back-to-home [ if (ticks mod back-time = 0) [ let x (home-x - current-x) let y (home-y - current-y) if (x != 0 and y != 0) [ set heading atan x y ;; set sensor heading towards home set jump-size sqrt(x ^ 2 + y ^ 2) ] ] ] ifelse (waiting-time > 0) [ set waiting-time waiting-time - 1 ] [ ;; sensors moves at a fixed speed V <= 1 step/tick ifelse(jump-size < 1) [ set current-x current-x + jump-size * dx ; dx and dy are like cos and sin set current-y current-y + jump-size * dy set jump-size 0 ][ set current-x current-x + dx set current-y current-y + dy set jump-size jump-size - 1 ] ;; update sensor position setxy current-x current-y foreach [self] of patches in-radius sensor-radius [ ask ? [ set overlapping overlapping + 1 ;; we visited the patch so color it! set pcolor scale-color blue overlapping 1 150 ] ] ];;END of if waiting-time > 0 end ;; END of movend to do-frequency-return let throw random sum-of-frequencies let flag false let partial-sum 0 let x 0 let y 0 foreach visited-locations [ if not flag [ set partial-sum partial-sum + item 1 ? if (partial-sum > throw) [ set flag true set x (px-index (item 0 ?)) set y (py-index (item 0 ?)) ] ] ] facexy x y ;; set heading towards the new location set jump-size sqrt((current-x - x) ^ 2 + (current-y - y) ^ 2) end to do-recency-return ; obtain the value of the quantile function from a zipfian distribution and round it to closest integer. This is the recency rank selcted. let k (round (Levy nu) - 1) ; because xmin = 1 while [ k >= length visited-locations] ; TODO: fix the way to select recent location because we loop many times when length of visited-locations is small [ set k (round (Levy nu) - 1) ] ; order locations according to the visiting time let location (item k (sort-by [item 2 ?1 > item 2 ?2] visited-locations)) let x (px-index (item 0 location)) let y (py-index (item 0 location)) facexy x y ;; set heading towards the new location set jump-size sqrt((current-x - x) ^ 2 + (current-y - y) ^ 2) end to-report FlightLength if (type-of-walk = "Brownian motion (Wiener)") or (type-of-walk = "correlated directions") [ report 1 ] if type-of-walk = "exponential" [ report exponential (1 / lambda) ] if type-of-walk = "Rayleigh flight" [ report Rayleigh stdev ] if type-of-walk = "Cauchy flight" [ report Cauchy ] if type-of-walk = "Levy flight" [ report Levy alpha ] if type-of-walk = "Levy with Exp cutoff" [ report Levy-cutoff alpha (1 / cutoff-length) ] end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; Routing Functions ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; to route-data if Routing = "Epidemic" and found [ ;; if event not found we don't need to update data ask other sensors in-radius sensor-radius with [not found] [updateData] stop ] if Routing = "Probabilistic Flooding" and found [ ask other sensors in-radius sensor-radius with [not found] [ if ((random-float 1) < delta) [updateData] ] stop ] if Routing = "Gradient" and found [ if any? sensors with [sink = True] in-radius sensor-radius [ set TLE replace-item who TLE ticks ;; update Time of Last [sink] Encounter ] let myTLE item who TLE ;; we look for sensors which encountered sink more recently ask other sensors in-radius sensor-radius with [ (item who TLE) > myTLE ] [updateData] stop ] if Routing = "PRoPHET" [ ;; we must update deliver predictability even if we didn't find the event let sensors-in-radius [who] of other sensors in-radius sensor-radius ;; remove myself because P(A,A) == 1 ;; 1 - When two nodes A and B meet, the first thing they do is to update the delivery predictability for each other if (empty? sensors-in-radius) [stop] foreach sensors-in-radius [ let Pold (item ? P) ifelse ( Pold < 0.1 ) ;; if delivery predictability is less than 1% than it's like if it never encountered that node ;; If node B has not met node A for a long time or has never met node B, such that P_(A,B) < P_first_threshold, then P_(A,B) should be set to P_encounter_first. ;; P_encounter_first SHOULD be set to 0.5 unless the node has extra information obtained other than through PRoPHET about the likelihood of future encounters. [ set P replace-item ? P 0.5 set TLE replace-item ? TLE ticks ] ;; P_(A,B) = P_(A,B)_old + ( 1 - delta - P_(A,B)_old ) * P_encounter [ set P replace-item ? P (Pold + (1 - 0.01 - Pold) * Pinit) set TLE replace-item ? TLE ticks ] ] let other-sensors [who] of other sensors ;; 2 - The predictabilities for all other destinations must be 'aged'. ;if (not empty? sensors-in-radius) [ ;; age probabilities of other sensors only if a sensor is met, because update of delivery predictability id done only in that case foreach other-sensors [ let Pold (item ? P) let tle-x (item ? TLE) ;; If a pair of nodes do not encounter each other during an interval, they are less likely to be good forwarders of bundles to each other, ;; thus the delivery predictability values must age. ;; The delivery predictabilities are aged before being passed to an encountered node so that they reflect the time ;; that has passed since the node had its last encounter with any other node. ;; P_(A,B) = P_(A,B)_old * gamma^K ;; where 0 <= gamma <= 1 is the aging constant, and K is the number of time units that have elapsed since the last time the metric was aged. if not ((member? ? sensors-in-radius) or (Pold = 0)) [ set P replace-item ? P ( Pold * aging ^ (ticks - tle-x) ) set TLE replace-item ? TLE ticks ] ] ;; 3 - Predictabilities are exchanged between A and B and the 'transitive' property of predictability is used to update the predictability of destinations C ;; for which B has a P(B,C) value on the assumption that A is likely to meet B again: foreach sensors-in-radius [ set nmessages nmessages + 1 ;; we consider 1 message each time we exchange predictabilities ;; P_(A,C) = MAX( P_(A,C)_old, P_(A,B) * P_(B,C)_recv * beta ) ;; where 0 <= beta <= 1 is a scaling constant that controls how large an impact the transitivity should have on the delivery predictability. let Pab (item ? P) let tle-x (item ? TLE) let current-sensor ? foreach other-sensors [ ;; skip P(A,A) let Pac_old (item ? P) let Pbc (item ? [P] of turtle current-sensor) let Pac_new (Pab * Pbc * trans) if not ((Pac_new < Pac_old) or (member? ? sensors-in-radius) or (Pbc = 0)) [ ;; skip P(B,B) == 1 set P replace-item ? P Pac_new set TLE replace-item ? TLE tle-x ] ] ] if found [ let PA_sink item 0 (item (n-of-mobile-sensors + n-of-static-sensors ) P) ;; implements GRTR forwarding strategy described here: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-irtf-dtnrg-prophet-10#section-3.6 ask other sensors in-radius sensor-radius with [ (item (n-of-mobile-sensors + n-of-static-sensors) P) > PA_sink and not found] [updateData] ] stop ] ;; END "PRoPHET" if Routing = "Spray & Wait" [ if (nMC <= 1) [stop] ;; wait phase if found [ ;; not needed actually, I keep it just for safety reasons if I mess with go procedure foreach ( [self] of other sensors in-radius sensor-radius with [not found] ) [ if (nMC > 1) [ ask ? [updateData] ] ;; spray phase set nMC nMC - 1 ] ] stop ] ;; END Spray & Wait if Routing = "Binary Spray & Wait" [ if (nMC <= 1) [stop] ;; wait phase if found [ foreach ( [self] of other sensors in-radius sensor-radius with [not found] ) [ if (nMC > 1) [ ;; spray phase ask ? [ updateData set nMC int ([nMC] of myself / 2) ] ] set nMC nMC - int (nMC / 2) ] ] stop ] ;; END "Binary Spray & Wait" ;; ############ Peer-to-Peer Communication Protocols ########## if Routing = "ExtractingFriendshipRelations" [ let sensors-in-radius [who] of other sensors in-radius sensor-radius ;; 1 - When two nodes A and B meet, the first thing they do is to update encounter frequency foreach sensors-in-radius [ ifelse (? < n-of-mobile-sensors) [ let fk (item ? P) ;; encounter frequency at time t-1 set P replace-item ? P (fk + 1) ;; F(A,B) = F(A,B)_old + 1 ] [ error "Out of P range!" ] ] if (ticks mod aging) = 0 [ ;; 2 - Update the Cumulative Score of Device d ;; we recompute Dunbar's number every so often, so reset it set D 0 ;; compute AVG(F) Average of all encounter frequencies within given interval let avgF (mean P) if avgF = 0 [ set avgF 1 ] let pos 0 foreach P [ if (? > 0) [ let CS_d_old (item pos CS_d) let I_d_old (item pos I_d) set I_d replace-item pos I_d (I_d_old + 1) ;; T_i is the length in second (in our case ticks, but it doesn't really matter!) of the interval ;; let T_i aging ;; let F_d ? ;(item pos P) let CS_d_new ( CS_d_old + (? / avgF) * aging / T_d ) set CS_d replace-item pos CS_d CS_d_new ] ;; 3 - compute Dunbar's number estimate ;; Pinit is the Static Baseline threshold, in the paper is named alpha ;; CDT is the Cumulative Dynamic Threshold, in the paper is named beta ;; I_d is the total intervals the devic d were present ;; if true then it is a "Familiar" device if item pos CS_d > (Pinit + CDT * (item pos I_d)) [ set D (D + 1) ] set pos (pos + 1) ] ;; reset frequencies set P n-values (n-of-mobile-sensors) [0] ] stop ] ;; ExtractingFreiendshipRelations if Routing = "SpreadingToStrongOrWeakTies" [ let sensors-in-radius [who] of other sensors in-radius sensor-radius ;show sensors-in-radius ; when a sensor meet another this encounter is reported in Ti-list foreach sensors-in-radius [ ;Multiply a sensor id by 0.0003 in order to use the form (f.id) ;the integer part (f) represents the frequancy while the float represents sensor id ;for example, 2.0001 means sensor1's frequency is 2. let temp1 ? let temp2 (? * 0.0001) ; If the history of encounters is empty THEN ; we put the currrent encounter into Ti-list and make its frequency = 1 ifelse(empty? Ti-list) [set Ti-list fput (temp2 + 1) Ti-list] [ foreach Ti-list [ ; we check whether the current encounter is in the history of encounters ; if YES we just update the encounter frequency by 1 ; if NO this means a new item will be inserted into the history of encounters and make its frequency = 1 ifelse(member? temp1 map[round((? - int ?) * 10000)] Ti-list) [ set Ti-list replace-item position ? Ti-list Ti-list (? + 1) ] [ set Ti-list fput (temp2 + 1) Ti-list] ] ; foreach Ti-list ] ;ifelse 1 ] ; foreach sensor-in-radius ; sort Ti-list according to the frequencies set Ti-list sort Ti-list ;Extracting the number of strong ties set strong-ties 0 ;reset the strong-ties buffer set strong-ties 0 ;reset the weak-ties buffer ; Get the length of 20% (strong ties) in Ti list set strong-ties length (sublist Ti-list round(length Ti-list * 0.8) round( length Ti-list)) ; Get the length of 80% (weak ties) in Ti list set weak-ties length (sublist Ti-list 0 round(length Ti-list * 0.8)) ; NOW this part invovlves CSTi and CWTi ; putting the strong and weak ties in their lists when they are empty ;Extracting the strong and weak ties according to 80/20 rule ; 1- Strong Ties foreach map [round((? - int ?) * 10000)] sublist Ti-list (length Ti-list * 0.8) ( length Ti-list) [ ; if this strong tie sensor is not in CSTi if(not member? ? CSTi) [ if(member? ? CWTi) [ ; remove it from CWTi set CWTi remove-item position ? CWTi CWTi ] ;add it to CSTi set CSTi fput ? CSTi ] ] ; Foreach - For Adding Strong Ties ; ; ; 2- Weak Ties foreach map [round((? - int ?) * 10000)] sublist Ti-list 0 (length Ti-list * 0.8) [ if(not member? ? CWTi) [ set CWTi fput ? CWTi ] ] ; Foreach - For Adding Weak Ties ;; Spreading Phase foreach sensors-in-radius [ if(DataSpreadingTo = "Strong Ties") [ if(not found and member? ? CSTi) [ updatedata ; Transfer the event from sensor ? to those which are in CWTi ] ] if(DataSpreadingTo = "Weak Ties") [ if(not found and member? ? CWTi) [ updatedata ; Transfer the event from sensor ? to those which are in CWTi ] ] ] stop ] ;"SpreadingToStrongOrWeakTies" end ;; END Route-Data to updateData ;; increase the number of messages exchanged set nmessages nmessages + 1 ;print (word "from " [who] of myself " to " who " at time " ticks) set color red set found true end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; Quantile Functions ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; to-report exponential [ rlambda ] ;; step length is chosen from an exponential distribution, with mean (1/lambda) = rlambda report random-exponential rlambda end to-report Rayleigh [ sigma ] ;; uses a normal distribution with standard deviation (sigma) = sigma and mean (mu) = 0 report abs random-normal 0 sigma end to-report Cauchy ;; quantile function (inverse cdf) of the Cauchy distribution is: ;; x0 + gamma * tan[pi* (p - 1/2)] ;; x0 is the location parameter, specifyng the location of the peak of the distribution ;; gamma is the scale parameter and is sometimes called the probable error ;; when x0 = 0 and gamma = 1 is called standard Cauchy distribution report abs tan((random-float 1 - 0.5) * 180 ) end to-report Levy [ scaling ] ;; length of flight is given by: ;; x = xmin * (1 - r)^(-1/(alpha-1)) ;; r is a random uniformly distributed real number ;; xmin is the lower bound to the power-law behaviour. We assume xmin = 1 ifelse(scaling > 1) [ report (1 - random-float 1) ^ (1 / (1 - scaling)) ] [ error "power law distribution must have exponent greater than 1" ] end to-report Levy-cutoff [ scaling lambd ] if(scaling < 1) [ error "power law distribution must have exponent greater than 1" ] ;; length of fly is choosed according to power law with exponential cutoff ;; x^(-alpha) * e^(-x*lambda) ;; where alpha = scaling and lambda = cutoff (in `Understanding individual human mobility patterns - Nature-2008`, lambda = 1/k) ;; For the case of the power law with cutoff there is no closed-form expression for quantile, ;; but one can generate an exponentially distributed random number using the formula ;; x = xmin − 1/lambda ln(1 − r) ;; where r is uniformly distributed and then accept or reject it with probability p or 1 − p respectively, ;; where ;; p = (x/xmin)^(-alpha). ;; Repeating the process until a number is accepted then gives an x with the appropriate distribution. ;; ;; This algorithm is a port of randht.py (Python, by Joel Ornstein) showed here: http://tuvalu.santafe.edu/~aaronc/powerlaws/ let x (list) let y (list) let xmin 1. let n 1 ;; number of samples to return let mu (1. / lambd) ; try to avoid recomputing it when q < 0 ;repeat (10 * n) [ set y lput (xmin - mu * ln(1 - random-float 1)) y ] let samples n-values (10 * n) [?] ;; this is a list [ 0 1 2 3 ... 10*n-1 ] loop [ set y (list) ;repeat (10 * n) [ set y lput (xmin + random-exponential mu) y] repeat (10 * n) [ set y lput (xmin - mu * ln(1 - random-float 1)) y ] let ytemp (list) foreach samples [ ;if ( random-float 1 < ((item ? y) / xmin ) ^ (- scaling) ) [ set ytemp lput (item ? y) ytemp ] if ( random-float 1 < (item ? y) ^ (- scaling) ) [ set ytemp lput (item ? y) ytemp ] ; do not divide by xmin because xmin = 1 ] ;;set y ytemp ;;set x sentence x y ;; concatenates lists set x sentence x ytemp ;; no point of setting y when it is not used later because we either return or overwrite it let q (length x - n) if (q = 0) [ report item 0 x ] if (q > 0) [ let r n-values (length x) [?] ;; this is a list [ 0 1 2 3 ... length(x)-1 ] let perm shuffle r let xtemp (list) foreach r [ if (not member? ? (sublist perm 0 q)) [ set xtemp lput (item ? x) xtemp ] ] ;set x xtemp ;report item 0 x report item 0 xtemp ; no need to reallocate if we are going to return ] ;if (q < 0) [ we do not need to check, if we didn't get out of the loop this condition is always true, so I moved it at the beginning of loop ; set y (list) ;repeat (10 * n) [ set y lput (xmin + random-exponential mu) y] ; repeat (10 * n) [ set y lput (xmin - mu * ln(random-float 1)) y ] ; 1 - random-float 1 = random-float 1 ;] ] ;; END loop end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; Monitor & Reporters ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; to-report p-index [px py] ;; this is a linear transform from (x,y) matrix style coordinates to [0,(max-pxcor-min-pxcor)] ==> y * (world-width) + x ;; since min-pxcor <= 0 and min-pycor <= 0 we can easily traslate pxcor and pycor to be >= 0 report (py - min-pycor) * (world-width) + px - min-pxcor end to-report px-index [pindex] report ifelse-value (pindex > 0) [ pindex mod world-width + min-pxcor ] [min-pxcor] end to-report py-index [pindex] report ifelse-value (pindex > 0) [ int ( pindex / world-width ) + min-pxcor] [min-pycor] end to-report fraction-of-covered-area report (count patches with [ overlapping > 0 ] ) / (count patches) end to-report fraction-of-acknowledged-nodes report (count sensors with [found]) / (count sensors) end to-report sensor-density ;; unit square here is 10x10 patches report (n-of-mobile-sensors + n-of-static-sensors) / (world-width * world-height) * 100 end to-report mean-S ;;n-values count sensors [ count patches with [item ? frequencies > 0] ] report mean ([S] of sensors with [mobile]) end to-report mean-D let Ds [D] of sensors with [mobile and D > 0] report ifelse-value (not empty? Ds) [mean Ds][0] end to-report MSD report ifelse-value (ticks > 0) [mean [(displacement / sum-of-frequencies) ^ 2] of sensors with [mobile]][0] end to export-patches-own-variables if file-exists? (word "frequencies-run-" behaviorspace-run-number ".csv") [ stop ] file-open (word "frequencies-run-" behaviorspace-run-number ".csv") let nsensors count sensors with [ mobile = true ] ;; write the header file-type "\"pxcor\",\"pycor\",\"overlapping\"" let sensor-index 0 repeat nsensors [ file-type (word ",\"f" sensor-index "\"") set sensor-index sensor-index + 1 ] file-type "\n" file-flush ;; write values ask patches [ file-type (word pxcor "," pycor "," overlapping) set sensor-index 0 let patch-index (p-index pxcor pycor) let freq 0 repeat nsensors [ ask sensor sensor-index [ let visited-patches (n-values (length visited-locations) [ item 0 (item ? visited-locations)] ) let location-index position patch-index visited-patches ifelse (location-index != false) [set freq (item 1 (item location-index visited-locations))][set freq 0] ] file-type (word "," freq) set sensor-index sensor-index + 1 ] file-type"\n" ] file-close end ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;######################################################################################################################################################## ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; Display Functions ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; to display-overlapping-layer ask patches [ set pcolor scale-color blue overlapping 1 1000 ] set current-showing -1 end to display-sensor-layer [ sensor-index ] if (sensor-index >= 0) and (sensor-index < n-of-mobile-sensors) [ ;; update current index set current-showing sensor-index ;; change color with sensor frequency ask patches [ set pcolor 0 ] ask sensor sensor-index [ foreach visited-locations [ ask patch (px-index (item 0 ?)) (py-index (item 0 ?)) [ set pcolor scale-color lime (item 1 ?) 1 20 ] ] ] ] end

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## Attached files

File | Type | Description | Last updated | |
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parsing-utils.zip | data | Utils to parse the data generated by BehaviorSpace experiments and import it to R [UPDATED] | over 3 years ago, by Marcello Tomasini | Download |

Social Network of Sensors.png | preview | Preview for 'Social Network of Sensors' | over 4 years ago, by Marcello Tomasini | Download |

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