Cultural Diffusion of Programming Languages

Cultural Diffusion of Programming Languages preview image

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Sergi_valverde Sergi Valverde (Author)

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cultural evolution  

Tagged by Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago

diffusion of technology 

Tagged by Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago

multilingualism 

Tagged by Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago

programming languages 

Tagged by Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago

software 

Tagged by Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago

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; A Model of Cultural Diffusion of Programming Languages
; Sergi Valverde and Ricard Solé
; May, 15th (2015)
; The array extension requires Netlogo 5.0
extensions [array]
globals 
[
  num-iter 
  max-capacity
  census
]

patches-own [
  ; the programming culture of a developer is described by a list holding up to 'max-capacity' languages  
  langj
]

to setup
  set num-iter 0
  set max-capacity 3
  set census array:from-list n-values ( 1 + MaxLang ) [5]
 
  ; set empty lists
  ask patches 
  [
;     set langj  (list (1 + random MaxLang )  (1 + random MaxLang ) ( 1 + random MaxLang ))
    set langj (list)
  ]
  transfer_colormap
end 

to plot-census
  clear-plot
 ; foreach n-values array:length census [?] 
 let llista sort-by > array:to-list census
  foreach llista
  [ 
    plot log ? 10 
  ]
end 

to transfer_colormap
  ask patches
  [
    let langs sort-by > langj
    let r 0
    let g 0
    let b 0
    let len length langs
    if len > 0 [
      set r (item 0 langs) / (1 + MaxLang)
    ]
    if len > 1 [
      set g (item 1 langs) / (1 + MaxLang)
    ]
    if len > 2 [
      set b (item 2 langs) / (1 + MaxLang)
    ]
    set pcolor rgb  (255.0 * r)  (255.0 * g) (255.0 * b)
  ]  
end 

; Weighted random draw from a list, options: 
; 1) Use the NetLogo/Rnd-Extension
; 2) http://stackoverflow.com/questions/22615519/netlogo-weighted-random-draw-from-a-list-how-to-use-rnd-extension

to-report weighted-rand-index2 [ values probs ]
  let i -1
  let found false
  let nc length probs
  while [(not found) ]
  [
    set i random nc
    let p item i probs
    if ( random-float 1.0 < p ) or ( p >= 0.9999999999 )
    [
       set found true 
    ]
  ]
  report i 
end 

 
; this is executed in patch context

to-report least-frequent-known [lan C ] ; langj census
  if C = 0 [   ; Is this a "Memento" world?
    report -1
  ]
  if length lan = 0 [ ; An ignorant programmer?  
    report -1
  ]
  if length lan = 1 [
    report 0 
  ]
  let prob map [ 1.0 - ((array:item census ?) / C) ] lan
  report  weighted-rand-index2 lan prob
end 

; this is executed in patch context

to-report most-frequent-known [ lan C ] ; langj census
  if C = 0 [   ; Is this a "Memento" world?
    report -1
  ]
  if length lan = 0 [ ; An ignorant programmer?  
    report -1
  ]
  if length lan = 1 [
    report 0 
  ]
  let prob map [ ((array:item census ?) / C) ] lan
  report weighted-rand-index2 lan prob
end 

to adoption 
   let check true
    
    ; Rule #1: Innovation 
    if (random-float 1.0 < ProbInnov) 
    [
      ; check if this developer has some free memory slots
      if length langj < max-capacity
      [
        ; discover one random language
        let l (1 + random MaxLang)
        
        ; is this new  ?
        if not member? l langj 
        [
          set langj lput l langj
          
           ; update census[l] ++; 
          array:set census l (array:item census l + 1)
        ]
      ]
      set check false
    ]
    
    ; Rule #2: Adoption
    if (random-float 1.0 < ProbAdoption) and check
    [
      ; pick one random neighbor
      let n one-of neighbors
      
      ; source(n) knows at least one language
      let langv [langj] of n
      if length langv > 0
      [
          ; compute normalization constant
        let C (sum array:to-list census)
        
        ; learn  the most frequent language  
         let lv item  (most-frequent-known langv C) langv
         
         ; check whether lv is a new language for the target j
         if not member? lv langj 
         [
            let lenj length langj 
            if lenj >= max-capacity
            [
              ; random replacement 
              let i random lenj 
              let f item i langj   
              set langj remove-item i langj   
              array:set census f (array:item census f - 1)              
            ]
            set langj lput lv langj
            array:set census lv (array:item census lv + 1)
         ]
      ]
      set check false
    ]
    
    ; Rule #3: Language Forgetting
    if (random-float 1.0 < ProbForget) and check
    [
      ; at least knows 2 different languages (one will be forgotten)
      if length langj > 1 
      [
        ; compute normalization constant
        let C (sum array:to-list census)
        
         ; remove the least frequent language
         let i (least-frequent-known langj C)
         let f item i langj 
         
         ; update census[l] --; 
         array:set census f (array:item census f - 1)
         
         ; forget 
         set langj remove-item i langj        
       ]
    ]
end 

to go   
  ; pick a random developer
  ;  let p one-of patches
  
  ; ask p  
  ask patches
  [ 
   adoption
  ] 
  
   transfer_colormap
 
  plot-census
  set num-iter num-iter + 1
end 

There are 2 versions of this model.

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Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago Additional information about the model. Download this version
Sergi Valverde about 3 years ago Initial upload Download this version

Attached files

File Type Description Last updated
A cultural diffusion model of programming languages.pdf pdf This is the paper were the model was first described: Valverde, S., Solé, R. V. (2015) "A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages" Human Biology 87(3), 224-234. about 3 years ago, by Sergi Valverde Download
Cultural Diffusion of Programming Languages.png preview Preview for 'Cultural Diffusion of Programming Languages' about 3 years ago, by Sergi Valverde Download

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