Minding Norms (Hunting for Norms)

Minding Norms (Hunting for Norms) preview image

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Jbradford_web3 John Bradford (Author)

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norms, society, sociology 

Tagged by John Bradford over 6 years ago

social norms 

Tagged by John Bradford over 6 years ago

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Posted over 6 years ago

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extensions [matrix]
directed-link-breed [messages message]
messages-own [what how]
breed [NDs ND] ; ND = norm detectors
breed [SCs SC];  SC = Social Conformers
globals [
  actions_l  ; actions list
   actions_m  ; actions matrix
   forget
   t  ;; total actions
   ]
turtles-own [
  agenda ; sequence for each social setting; in this case, each setting visited no more than once, thus it is a PATH (not a trail or a random walk)
  time_allocation ; percentage time distributed across each setting, summing to number_of_ticks (100%)
  time_points ; list of ticks at which setting changes for agent, the running sum of time_allocation
  ; max_partners = # of potential interaction partners (may be constant or vary)
  setting ; attached to each agent, indicates which social setting the agent occupies at a given time
  setting_history
  counter ;; records the current item in time_points
  ;NOTE:  "SETTING" = THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THE TURTLE AT TIME T.  "SETTINGS" IS THE GLOBAL PARAMETER SPECIFYING HOW MANY TOTAL SETTINGS EXIST.
  action_history ; records actions of the agent - agents will observe the most recent action of agents in its particular setting
  norm_board
  working_memory ;; = working memory; observed behaviors or messages of others are stored here until time "memory"
  threshold ;; SALIENCE; "frequency of the corresponding normative behaviors observed; i.e. the percentage of the compliant population" (p. 100) -
  ACTION
  ]

to setup

 clear-all
 reset-ticks

 set-default-shape turtles "person"

 let pop population
 let pop_nd round ((.01 * Percentage_ND) * population)
 create-NDs pop_nd
 let pop_sc population - (count NDs)
 create-SCs pop_sc

 set forget 1 / memory
 set t actions_per_setting + universal_actions

 ask NDs [set color blue]
 ask SCs [set color red]


  ask turtles [

  set size 1.5
 let close min-one-of other turtles [distance myself]
 while [distance close < 1]
[let r random 360
  set heading r
  fd 1
  set close min-one-of other turtles [distance myself]
  ]

  ]
setup_actions

setup_attributes

setup_WM  ; working memories
end 

to setup_WM
  ;; row 1 = c_a (observed compliant actions)
  ;; row 2 = n (observed agents) in this model, always observes only 1, so updates across all columns + 1 per tick
  ;; row 3 = m (message strength); accumulates over time;  need to weight by time..
  ask nds [
    set working_memory matrix:make-constant 3 t 0
    set norm_board []
  ]
end 

to setup_actions
  ;; creating ACTIONS
;; actions 0, 1, 2, etc for common/universal actions
;; actions 11, 12, 13, etc. for scenario 1;  21, 22, 23... for scenario 2, and so on.
;;  first, create a global list of possible actions.. then, have each agent choose one randomly and record it, depending on their situation.
let s settings
let hlist [] let b 11
repeat s [let nlist n-values t [ d_i -> d_i + b ] set hlist lput nlist hlist  set b b + 10]
set actions_m matrix:from-row-list hlist

set actions_l []
let i 1
let i2 actions_per_setting
repeat universal_actions [
let ulist n-values s [i]
matrix:set-column actions_m i2 ulist
set i i + 1
set i2 i2 + 1
]

let i3 1   ;; because procedure a_list below substracts 1
repeat s [
  let alist a_list i3
set actions_l lput  alist actions_l
set i3 i3 + 1
]

set actions_l reduce [ [?1 ?2] -> (sentence ?1 ?2) ] actions_l
set actions_l remove-duplicates actions_l
set actions_l sort actions_l
;show actions_l
end 

to setup_attributes
  ask turtles [set threshold random-float .7]  ;  thresholds are between 0 and 70%.

  set_agenda
  set_time
end 

to set_agenda

ask turtles [
  let s settings
  let s_list []
  let i 1
  while [length s_list < s] [set s_list lput i s_list set i i + 1] ;; creates a list 1 --> n, # settings
set agenda []
while [length s_list > 0] [
let n one-of s_list
set s_list remove n s_list
set agenda fput n agenda ]
    ]

ask turtles [
  set setting item 0 agenda]
end 

to set_time
 ;; must distribute available ticks to each social setting
; here I need to distribute the ticks over s settings, creating a list "time_allocation"
; To do this, I go over each position in the list, deciding with 50-50 probability whether to add 1 or 0, until all of the ticks are gone.
let s settings

ask turtles[
  set action_history []
  let n number_of_ticks
  set time_allocation []
  repeat s [set time_allocation fput 0 time_allocation]
  let i 0 ; item # in list
  while [n > 0] [
      let iv item i time_allocation + 1
      let p random 2 ;  creates 0 or 1
      if p > 0 [set time_allocation replace-item i time_allocation iv
        set n n - 1
             ]
      ifelse i >= (s - 1) [set i 0] [set i i + 1]
  ]
  set time_points []
  set setting_history []
  set counter 0 ; item 0 in time_points
  set setting item counter agenda

    ;;setting random action corresponding to initial setting
  let row setting - 1 ;corresponds to row in actions matrix
  let action_p matrix:get-row actions_m row
  set action one-of action_p
  set action_history lput action action_history
]


ask turtles [
  let i 0
  repeat s - 1 [
  let new_list sublist time_allocation 0 (i + 1)
  let new_total sum new_list
  set time_points lput new_total time_points
  set i i + 1

  ]
  set time_points lput number_of_ticks time_points

]
end 

to start
  ifelse ticks >= number_of_ticks [stop]

  [


move_to_group ; [code taken from "Grouping Turtles Example"]
interact
set_setting

   tick
  ]
update_plots
end 

to interact
  ask-concurrent turtles [
    ifelse breed = nds [nds_action] [scs_action]
  ]
end 

to nds_action

 let s [setting] of self
 let sd s - 1
 let n_update n-values t [1] ;; this creates a list [1 1 1] which I use to add to the second row (demoninator)

nds_action_update_denominator
nds_action_update_numerator
nds_action_update_messages
nds_action_setup_norm_board
nds_action_forgetting
nds_action_select
end 

to-report alters [scs?]   ;; if scs? = 1, then possible partners = all turtles; if = 0, then only nds.
   let s [setting] of self
   let partners nobody
   ifelse scs? = 1 [set partners other turtles with [setting = s]]
   [set partners other nds with [setting = s]]

  ifelse partners = nobody [report self] [report one-of partners]
end 

to-report a_list [s] ;; reports the available actions in a setting ('situation')

  let sit s - 1
  report matrix:get-row actions_m sit
end 

to-report m_strength  ;; may want to tweak
report random-in-range forget 1
end 

to nds_action_update_denominator
  ;;updating denominator, row 1 (i.e. the second row)
  let update_d matrix:get-row working_memory 1  ;; get the values of the 'n' row making a list..
  let new_d map [ ?1 -> ?1 + 1 ] update_d
  matrix:set-row working_memory 1 new_d
end 

to nds_action_update_numerator  ;; can observe actions of ALL TURTLES (not just NDS)
  ;;updating numerator (row 0, i.e. first row) ;; observed action
  ;; must record the position of this action, from the actions_m, so we update the WM in the right column
 let s [setting] of self
; let partner alters
 let alist a_list s  ;reporter
 let c_a [action] of alters 1
 let p position c_a alist ;; gets the column position of action c_a from the actions_m matrix, and then uses
  ;; that same position to update the working_memory column, row 0.

  ifelse member? c_a alist [
  let old_value matrix:get working_memory 0 p
  let new_value old_value + 1
  matrix:set working_memory 0 p new_value
  ]
  [ ]  ;; if values aren't legal, then skip...
end 

to nds_action_update_messages
  ;;updating messages, row 2; observed communications
  ;;agents with norms communicate messages!  w
  ;; right now, randomly assign arbitrary value to random column of row 2
  ;; UPDATE, RECEIVING MESSAGE REGARDING ACTION OBSERVED
 let s [setting] of self
 let sd s - 1
 let partner alters 1  ;;
  create-message-to partner [  ;; for ND's, alter is set to only other ND's to send a message to; SCs do not process messages.
   set what [action] of end1  ;;  setting the "WHAT" attribute as the action of the sender
   set how m_strength  ;; m_strength is a random variable
 ];; in this case, turtle is SENDING MESSAGE about its own current action

  let r1 random t ;; 0 to t-1  ; random action column
  let r2 m_strength ;; THESE VALUES WILL BE RANDOM ONLY IF TURTLE HAS NO IN-MESSAGES

  if count my-in-messages > 0 [  ;; SELECTING an incoming message regarding action and updating working memory
    let my_m one-of my-in-messages
    let my_what [what] of my_m  ;action
    let my_how [how] of my_m ; m, strength of message
    if member? my_what a_list s[  ;; if the message is an about an action in the current setting...
      set r1 position my_what a_list s   ;; DOUBLE CHECK, reporter
      set r2 [how] of my_m
    ]

  let old_m matrix:get working_memory 2 r1
  ifelse old_m < 1 [
    let new_m old_m ^ 2 + r2
    matrix:set working_memory 2 r1 new_m]
  [ ]  ;; otherwise do nothing, leave as is if above 1.
    ;matrix:set working_memory 2 r1 1]  ;; alternative:  setting values to 1 if not below 1
  ]
end 

to nds_action_setup_norm_board
 let s [setting] of self
 let sd s - 1

 ;; now, must calculate a new vector (row) that is (row 0) / (row 1), or v=c_a/n.  To do this, a new vector from each row must be created first.
 ;; Procedure, IF v > threshold AND m > 1, THEN store action as norm in "NORM_BOARD"

 let row0 matrix:get-row working_memory 0  ;; frequency
 let row1 matrix:get-row working_memory 1  ;; denominator (total cases)
 let row2 matrix:get-row working_memory 2  ;; message strength

 let freq (map / row0 row1)   ;; a new list, each item is c_a/n, for each action-  actions are recorded by their position in the list.
 foreach freq [ ?1 -> if ?1 > threshold [
     let th_a position ?1 freq  ;; position of the action crossing the threshold value
     let p_a item th_a row2  ;; check the strength of this action
     if p_a > 1 [
       let new_norm matrix:get actions_m sd th_a
       ;; records the action listed in the action_m matrix, in setting s (in row (s-1),) column th_a
     ifelse member? new_norm norm_board [] [set norm_board fput new_norm norm_board  ;; if its new, record it as new norm
       set norm_board remove-duplicates norm_board  ;; clearning up
       set norm_board sort norm_board ;; cleaning up

       ]
 ]] ]
end 

to nds_action_forgetting  ;; this is to reduce the strength of m over time by a constant factor
  ;;forgetting...

  let m_row matrix:get-row working_memory 2
  set m_row map [ ?1 -> ?1 - forget ] m_row
  foreach m_row [ ?1 -> if ?1 < 0 [let b position ?1 m_row set m_row replace-item b m_row 0] ]

  matrix:set-row working_memory 2 m_row
end 

to nds_action_select
  let s [setting] of self
   let a s - 1 ;; = row for setting in actions_m matrix
  ;; prefers to select norm in given situation; if norm_board empty, nds act like scs; another possiblity is that they choose randomly
  ifelse empty? norm_board [scs_action]
  [
    let alist a_list s ;reporter
    let afilter filter [ ?1 -> member? ?1 norm_board ] alist  ;; this filters out all actions in the norm_board not appropriate for that setting

    if empty? afilter [set afilter alist]
  ;; choose afilter item with highest m score in working memory;
  ;; step 1, find positions of each in actions_m (row s - 1)
  ;; step 2, record values for identical positions in row2 of working memory\
  ;; step 3, highest value is selected...  find position for this value again
  ;; step 4, record value (i.e. action) for same position in actions_m (row s -1)
  ;; choose norm with highest m in working memory if more than one relevant norm


   let wm matrix:get-row working_memory 2
   let am matrix:get-row actions_m a

 ifelse length afilter > 1 [
    ;; e.g. actions 21 and 23 in setting 2 are in norm_board, how to choose between them?
    ;; procedure:  find highest m in row 2 of working_memory; record position and find corresponding action in actions_m (row s-1, col ?)
    ;; IF action(i) is member? of norm_board, then select action(i).
    ;; IF NOT, then repeat...

   let norm_positions []
  foreach afilter [ ?1 -> let p position ?1 am set norm_positions fput p norm_positions ]
  let wm_values []
  foreach sort norm_positions [ ?1 -> let v item ?1 wm set wm_values fput v wm_values ]
  let max_v max wm_values
  let max_p position max_v wm  ;;  be careful, if same values exist for multiple actions, then could run into problems
  let new_action item max_p am
  if member? new_action afilter [set action new_action]


  ]
  [
    set action one-of afilter
    ]
  ;set action
  set action_history fput action action_history

  ]

  forgetting
end 

to scs_action

  let s [setting] of self
  let my_action [action] of self
  let partners turtles with [setting = s]  ;including self
  let action_list []

 ; let a s - 1 ; corresponds to the row # with possible actions for that setting in the actions_matrix
  let alist a_list s
  let new_list [action] of partners
  let cfilter filter [ ?1 -> member? ?1 new_list ] alist  ;;VERY IMPORTANT!  This basically excludes all actions of partners that aren't allowed in that setting..
  if empty? cfilter [set cfilter alist]
 ; let new_action modes [action] of partners
  let n_action one-of cfilter ;; chooses just one mode if a tie
  set action n_action
  set action_history fput action action_history

  forgetting
end 

to forgetting

    if length action_history > memory [let i memory - 1 set action_history remove-item i action_history]
end 

to set_setting   ;; moving turtle around asynchronously from situation to situation
    ; must find item # in the time_points list correspondin to ticks
    ; if ticks > item 0, then go to item 1; if ticks > item 1, then go to item 2, and so on..
    ; until we rearch the highest value in the list which is less than ticks
    ; then we record item #, and set setting = item i of agenda

    ; Example, turtle 0: agenda = [0 3 1 2]; time_allocation (out of 10) = [2 3 2 3]; time_points = [2 5 7]
    ; Suppose ticks = 8, then setting of turtle 0 will be 2.  Why?  Because ticks > item 2 on time_points,
    ; which means that we set the agenda to item #3 on agenda.  Item 3 = 2.  Therefore, setting for turtle 0 = 2.

  ask turtles [
let ti item counter time_points
if ticks > ti [
  set counter counter + 1
  set setting item counter agenda

  ;; NEED TO RESET WORKING MEMORIES!
  ;; NEED TO RESET MY-IN-MESSAGES:  in this model, communications are only allowed about actions available in the setting

  set working_memory matrix:make-constant 3 t 0
  ask my-in-messages [die]
]
  set setting_history lput setting setting_history

  ]
end 

to move_to_group
  ask-concurrent turtles [move-to get-home
      ;; wiggle a little and always move forward, to make sure turtles don't all
    ;; pile up
    lt random 5
    rt random 5
    fd 1
  ]
end 

;; figures out the home patch for a group. this looks complicated, but the
;; idea is simple. we just want to lay the groups out in a regular grid,
;; evenly spaced throughout the world. we want the grid to be square, so in
;; some cases not all the positions are filled.

to-report get-home ;; turtle procedure
  ;; calculate the minimum length of each side of our grid
  let side ceiling (sqrt (max [setting] of turtles + 1))

  report patch
           ;; compute the x coordinate
           (round ((world-width / side) * (setting mod side)
             + min-pxcor + int (world-width / (side * 2))))
           ;; compute the y coordinate
           (round ((world-height / side) * int (setting / side)
             + min-pycor + int (world-height / (side * 2))))
end 

to-report random-in-range [low high]
  report low + random-float (high - low)
end 

to-report SC-freq  ;;report how many choose most popular action
  let c count SCs
  let newlist []
  foreach sort actions_l
  [ ?1 -> let v count SCs with [action = ?1]
    set newlist lput v newlist ]
   let SC_max max newlist ;; this is how many SCs choose the most popular action among them
   let SC_p position SC_max newlist ;; this identifies the position on the list of the most popular action among SCs
   let SC_action position SC_p actions_l
   report SC_max
  ; report SC_action
end 

to-report SC_pop_action ;; most popular action among SCs
    let c count SCs
  let newlist []
  foreach sort actions_l
  [ ?1 -> let v count SCs with [action = ?1]
    set newlist lput v newlist ]
   let SC_max max newlist ;; this is how many SCs choose the most popular action among them
   let SC_p position SC_max newlist ;; this identifies the position on the list of the most popular action among SCs
   let SC_action item SC_p actions_l
   report SC_action
end 

to-report ND-freq  ;;report how many choose most popular action
  let c count NDs
  let newlist []
  foreach sort actions_l
  [ ?1 -> let v count NDs with [action = ?1]
    set newlist lput v newlist ]
   let ND_max max newlist ;; this is how many SCs choose the most popular action among them
   let ND_p position ND_max newlist ;; this identifies the position on the list of the most popular action among SCs
   let ND_action position ND_p actions_l
   report ND_max
  ; report SC_action
end 

to-report ND_pop_action ;; most popular action among SCs
    let c count NDs
  let newlist []
  foreach sort actions_l
  [ ?1 -> let v count NDs with [action = ?1]
    set newlist lput v newlist ]
   let ND_max max newlist ;; this is how many SCs choose the most popular action among them
   let ND_p position ND_max newlist ;; this identifies the position on the list of the most popular action among SCs
   let ND_action item ND_p actions_l
   report ND_action
end 

to update_plots
  set-current-plot "Convergence Rate"
  set-current-plot-pen "social conformers"
  let c1 count SCs
  if c1 = 0 [set c1 1]
  let f SC-freq
  let prcnt_sc (f / c1) * 100
  plot prcnt_sc

  set-current-plot-pen "norm detectors"
  let c2 count NDs
  if c2 = 0 [set c2 1]
  let f2 ND-freq
  let prcnt_nd (f2 / c2) * 100
 plot prcnt_nd
end 

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