Electrical Grids and Load Shedding

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Default-person Jane Antonas (Author)

Tags

electricity 

Tagged by Jane Antonas 6 months ago

electricity utilities 

Tagged by Jane Antonas 6 months ago

grid 

Tagged by Jane Antonas 6 months ago

power generation 

Tagged by Jane Antonas 6 months ago

transmission, generations 

Tagged by Jane Antonas 6 months ago

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breed [houses house]
breed [generators generator]
breed [Hz a-Hz]
breed [frowns frown]

undirected-link-breed [ cables cable ]
undirected-link-breed [ roads road ]

globals [potential poweredhouses unpoweredhouses poweredhousesfreq]

houses-own [frequency capacity]
Hz-own [location]

to setup
  ca
  ask patches [ ;;make background white
    set pcolor white
  ]
  create-generators 1
  ask generators [ ;;make generator
    set size 6
    set shape "factory"
    set color black
  ]
  create-houses num-houses ;;make amount of houses according to slider
  set-default-shape houses "house efficiency"
  ask houses [
    set size 7
    set color 5
  ]
  ask houses [ create-roads-with other generators ] ;;create links between houses and generator
  layout-radial houses roads (generator 0) ;;layout houses in a circle with generator in the center (need "road" links for this primitive)
  create-Hz 1 [ ;;places a Hz on the generator for visual representation of power generation
    set color yellow
    set shape "lightning"
    set size 3
    set location generator 0
    move-to location
  ]
  ask houses [ ;;change pcolor of house patches to red
    if pcolor = white [
      set pcolor red
    ]
  ]
  ask roads [set thickness 0] ;;make roads less visible (only needed them for layout-radial)
  reset-ticks
end 

to go
  if ticks < 4 [ ;;don't allow "go" to be repeated without setting up again
  normal-operations
  generator-failure
  tick ;;represents reaction time of transmission operator or
  tick ;;automatic fail-safe procedures
  load-shed
  stabilize
  ]
end 

to normal-operations
  ask Hz [ die ] ;;get rid of Hz
  ask houses [
    set pcolor red ;;here AND in setup so users don't have to click setup between load-shed back to normal operations
  ]
   ask houses [
    set capacity (60 * num-houses) ;;capacity of generator during normal operations should allow it to supply 60 Hz to all customers
  ]                                ;;so capacity depends on number of customers
  ask houses [
    set frequency (capacity / num-houses) ;;frequency of houses is an even distribution of generator capacity
  ]
  ask patches with [ pcolor = red ] [ ;;all houses sprout a Hz
    sprout-Hz 1 [
      set size 3
      set color yellow
      set shape "lightning"
    ]
  ]
  ask roads [ ;;links between houses and generator change color to indicate houses being powered
    set thickness 0.5
    set color yellow ;;yellow roads represent transmission of target frequency
  ]
  change-color ;;update visuals
  tick
end 

to generator-failure
  ask Hz [ die ] ;;get rid of Hz
  ask patches with [ pcolor = red ] [ ;;only powered houses have Hz
   sprout-Hz 1
  ]
  ask Hz [
   set size 3
   set color red ;red Hz represent frequency too low
   set shape "lightning"
  ]
  ask houses [
    set capacity (generator-capacity * (60 * num-houses)) ;;capacity of generator is a percentage (based on slider) of the frequency it should be able to provide
    set frequency (capacity / num-houses) ;;change frequency of houses based on new diminished capacity
  ]
  change-color ;;adjust visuals
  tick ;;plot frequency
end 

to load-shed
  ask Hz [ die ] ;;get rid of Hz
  ask houses [
    set capacity (generator-capacity * (60 * num-houses)) ;;change generator capacity based on slider
    if capacity < 60 [ ;;can't power any houses if capacity is less than 60 Hz
      set capacity 0
      set frequency 0
      set color red] ;;red houses aren't powered
    ]
  ask houses [
    set potential (capacity / 60) ;;how many houses can be fully powered (60Hz) with decreased capacity
    show potential]
  ask houses with [ who <= (potential) ] [ ;;turns a number of houses green according to potential
    set color green
    set pcolor red ]
  ask houses with [ who > (potential) ] [ ;;turns the rest of houses red
    set color red
    set pcolor cyan ]
  ask houses [
    set poweredhouses (count houses with [color = green] ) ;;green houses get power
    set unpoweredhouses (count houses with [color = red] ) ] ;;red houses get a blackout
  ask houses [
    if color = green [
      set frequency ( capacity / (count houses with [color = green] )) ;;frequency of powered houses is an equal distribution of available generator capacity
    ]                                                                  ;;note: this value will be greater than 60 Hz, creating a peak on frequency graph
  ]
  ask houses [
    if color = red [ ;;red houses are unpowered and therefore have a frequency of 0
      set frequency 0 ]
  ]
  ask patches [
    if pcolor = red [ ;;change visuals based on whether house is powered or unpowered
    sprout-Hz 2
    ]
    if pcolor = cyan [
    sprout-frowns 1
    ]
  ]
  ask frowns [ ;;unpowered houses get a frowny face :(
    set shape "face sad"
    set size 2
    set color white
  ]
  ask Hz [
    set color blue
    set shape "lightning"
    set size 3
  ]
  ask Hz [ ;;create links between Hz and generator
    create-cables-with generators ]
  ask cables [ ;;blue cables represent frequency being too high
    set color blue
    set thickness 0.5
  ]
  ask roads [die] ;;roads no longer necessary
  tick
end 

to stabilize ;;transmission operator decreases generation to only what is necessary to power as many houses as possible given maximum capacity
  ask houses [ ;;set frequency of unpowered houses to whatever remains after fully powering as many houses as possible
    if color = red [ ;;however, for purposes of the plotter, red houses are treated as if having 0 frequency and are not counted in average frequency
      set frequency ( (capacity - (60 * poweredhouses)) / (unpoweredhouses) ) ;;this is only for demonstration purposes to show how little the frequency of these houses
    ]                                                                        ;;would be without stabilization
    if color = green [
      set frequency 60
    ]
  ]
  ask cables [ ;;yellow cables represent transmission of target frequency
    set color yellow
  ]
  ask Hz [
    set color yellow
  ]
  tick
end 

to change-color
  ask houses [
    if frequency = 60 [ ;;fully powered houses are green with yellow roads
      set color green
      ask roads [
        set color yellow]
    ]
    if frequency < 60 and frequency > 0 [ ;;houses that are only partially-powered (experiencing interruptions) are yellow
      set color yellow
      ask roads [
        set color red] ;;red roads indicate power interruption
    ]
  ]
end 

There is only one version of this model, created 6 months ago by Jane Antonas.

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