GasLab New Benchmark

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Uri_dolphin3 Uri Wilensky (Author)

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Model group CCL | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (CCL)
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VERSION

$Id: GasLab New Benchmark.nlogo 38506 2008-03-05 23:59:14Z tisue $

This is the GasLab codebase.

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globals
[
  result
  tick-length          ;; clock variable
  box-edge                   ;; distance of box edge from axes
  pressure
  pressure-history
  zero-pressure-count        ;; how many zero entries are in pressure-history
  wall-hits-per-particle     ;; average number of wall hits per particle
  length-horizontal-surface  ;; the size of the wall surfaces that run horizontally - the top and bottom of the box
  length-vertical-surface    ;; the size of the wall surfaces that run vertically - the left and right of the box
  init-avg-speed init-avg-energy  ;; initial averages
  avg-speed avg-energy            ;; current averages
  fast medium slow                ;; current counts
  fade-needed?
]
breed [ particles particle ]
breed [ flashes flash ]
breed [clockers clocker ]
flashes-own [birthday]
particles-own
[
  speed mass energy          ;; particle info
  wall-hits                  ;; # of wall hits during this clock cycle ("big tick")
  momentum-difference        ;; used to calculate pressure from wall hits
  last-collision
]

to benchmark
  random-seed 361
  reset-timer
  setup
  repeat 800 [ go ]
  set result timer
end 

to setup
  ca
  set-default-shape particles "circle"
  set fade-needed? false
  ;; box has constant size...
  set box-edge (max-pxcor - 1)
  ;;; the length of the horizontal or vertical surface of
  ;;; the inside of the box must exclude the two patches
  ;; that are the where the perpendicular walls join it,
  ;;; but must also add in the axes as an additional patch
  ;;; example:  a box with an box-edge of 10, is drawn with
  ;;; 19 patches of wall space on the inside of the box
  set length-horizontal-surface  ( 2 * (box-edge - 1) + 1)
  set length-vertical-surface  ( 2 * (box-edge - 1) + 1)
  make-box
  make-particles
  make-clocker
  set pressure-history []
  set zero-pressure-count 0
  update-variables
  set init-avg-speed avg-speed
  set init-avg-energy avg-energy
  setup-plots
  setup-histograms
  do-plotting
end 

to update-variables
  set medium count particles with [color = green]
  set slow   count particles with [color = blue]
  set fast   count particles with [color = red]
  set avg-speed  mean [speed] of particles
  set avg-energy mean [energy] of particles
end 

to go
  ask particles [ bounce ]
  ask particles [ move ]
  ask particles [ if collide? [check-for-collision] ]
  if trace?
  [ ask particle 0
     [ set pcolor gray set fade-needed? true ]
  ]
  let old-clock ticks
  tick-advance tick-length
  if floor ticks > floor (ticks - tick-length)
  [
    ifelse any? particles
      [ set wall-hits-per-particle mean [wall-hits] of particles ]
      [ set wall-hits-per-particle 0 ]
    ask particles
      [ set wall-hits 0 ]
    if fade-needed? [fade-patches]
    calculate-pressure
    update-variables
    do-plotting
  ]
  calculate-tick-length
  ask clockers [ set heading ticks * 360 ]
  ask flashes with [ticks - birthday > 0.4]
  [
    set pcolor yellow
    die
  ]
  display
end 

to calculate-tick-length
  ifelse any? particles with [speed > 0]
    [ set tick-length 1 / (ceiling max [speed] of particles) ]
    [ set tick-length 1 ]
end 
;;; Pressure is defined as the force per unit area.  In this context,
;;; that means the total momentum per unit time transferred to the walls
;;; by particle hits, divided by the surface area of the walls.  (Here
;;; we're in a two dimensional world, so the "surface area" of the walls
;;; is just their length.)  Each wall contributes a different amount
;;; to the total pressure in the box, based on the number of collisions, the
;;; direction of each collision, and the length of the wall.  Conservation of momentum
;;; in hits ensures that the difference in momentum for the particles is equal to and
;;; opposite to that for the wall.  The force on each wall is the rate of change in
;;; momentum imparted to the wall, or the sum of change in momentum for each particle:
;;; F = SUM  [d(mv)/dt] = SUM [m(dv/dt)] = SUM [ ma ], in a direction perpendicular to
;;; the wall surface.  The pressure (P) on a given wall is the force (F) applied to that
;;; wall over its surface area.  The total pressure in the box is sum of each wall's
;;; pressure contribution.

to calculate-pressure
  ;; by summing the momentum change for each particle,
  ;; the wall's total momentum change is calculated
  set pressure 15 * sum [momentum-difference] of particles
  set pressure-history lput pressure pressure-history
  set zero-pressure-count length filter [? = 0] pressure-history
  ask particles
    [ set momentum-difference 0 ]  ;; once the contribution to momentum has been calculated
                                   ;; this value is reset to zero till the next wall hit
end 

to bounce  ;; particle procedure
  ;; if we're not about to hit a wall (yellow patch), or if we're already on a
  ;; wall, we don't need to do any further checks
  if shade-of? yellow pcolor
    [ stop ]
  let new-patch patch-ahead 1
  let new-px [pxcor] of new-patch
  let new-py [pycor] of new-patch
  if not shade-of? yellow [pcolor] of new-patch
    [ stop ]
  ;; get the coordinates of the patch we'll be on if we go forward 1
  if (abs new-px != box-edge and abs new-py != box-edge)
    [stop]
  ;; if hitting left or right wall, reflect heading around x axis
  if (abs new-px = box-edge)
    [ set heading (- heading)
      set wall-hits wall-hits + 1
  ;;  if the particle is hitting a vertical wall, only the horizontal component of the speed
  ;;  vector can change.  The change in velocity for this component is 2 * the speed of the particle,
  ;; due to the reversing of direction of travel from the collision with the wall
      set momentum-difference momentum-difference + (abs (sin heading * 2 * mass * speed) / length-vertical-surface) ]
  ;; if hitting top or bottom wall, reflect heading around y axis
  if (abs new-py = box-edge)
    [ set heading (180 - heading)
      set wall-hits wall-hits + 1
  ;;  if the particle is hitting a horizontal wall, only the vertical component of the speed
  ;;  vector can change.  The change in velocity for this component is 2 * the speed of the particle,
  ;; due to the reversing of direction of travel from the collision with the wall
      set momentum-difference momentum-difference + (abs (cos heading * 2 * mass * speed) / length-horizontal-surface)  ]

  ask patch new-px new-py
    [ sprout-flashes 1 [ ht
                 set birthday ticks
                 set pcolor yellow - 3 ] ]
end 

to move  ;; particle procedure
  let old-patch patch-here
  jump (speed * tick-length)
  if patch-here != old-patch
    [ set last-collision nobody ]
end 

to check-for-collision  ;; particle procedure
  ;; Here we impose a rule that collisions only take place when there
  ;; are exactly two particles per patch.  We do this because when the
  ;; student introduces new particles from the side, we want them to
  ;; form a uniform wavefront.
  ;;
  ;; Why do we want a uniform wavefront?  Because it is actually more
  ;; realistic.  (And also because the curriculum uses the uniform
  ;; wavefront to help teach the relationship between particle collisions,
  ;; wall hits, and pressure.)
  ;;
  ;; Why is it realistic to assume a uniform wavefront?  Because in reality,
  ;; whether a collision takes place would depend on the actual headings
  ;; of the particles, not merely on their proximity.  Since the particles
  ;; in the wavefront have identical speeds and near-identical headings,
  ;; in reality they would not collide.  So even though the two-particles
  ;; rule is not itself realistic, it produces a realistic result.  Also,
  ;; unless the number of particles is extremely large, it is very rare
  ;; for three or more particles to land on the same patch (for example,
  ;; with 400 particles it happens less than 1% of the time).  So imposing
  ;; this additional rule should have only a negligible effect on the
  ;; aggregate behavior of the system.
  ;;
  ;; Why does this rule produce a uniform wavefront?  The particles all
  ;; start out on the same patch, which means that without the only-two
  ;; rule, they would all start colliding with each other immediately,
  ;; resulting in much random variation of speeds and headings.  With
  ;; the only-two rule, they are prevented from colliding with each other
  ;; until they have spread out a lot.  (And in fact, if you observe
  ;; the wavefront closely, you will see that it is not completely smooth,
  ;; because some collisions eventually do start occurring when it thins out while fanning.)
  if count other particles-here = 1
  [
    ;; the following conditions are imposed on collision candidates:
    ;;   1. they must have a lower who number than my own, because collision
    ;;      code is asymmetrical: it must always happen from the point of view
    ;;      of just one particle.
    ;;   2. they must not be the same particle that we last collided with on
    ;;      this patch, so that we have a chance to leave the patch after we've
    ;;      collided with someone.
    let candidate one-of other particles-here with
      [who < [who] of myself and myself != last-collision]
    ;; we also only collide if one of us has non-zero speed. It's useless
    ;; (and incorrect, actually) for two particles with zero speed to collide.
    if (candidate != nobody) and (speed > 0 or [speed] of candidate > 0)
    [
      collide-with candidate
      set last-collision candidate
      ask candidate [ set last-collision myself ]
    ]
  ]
end 
;; implements a collision with another particle.
;;
;; THIS IS THE HEART OF THE PARTICLE SIMULATION, AND YOU ARE STRONGLY ADVISED
;; NOT TO CHANGE IT UNLESS YOU REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU'RE DOING!
;;
;; The two particles colliding are self and other-particle, and while the
;; collision is performed from the point of view of self, both particles are
;; modified to reflect its effects. This is somewhat complicated, so I'll
;; give a general outline here:
;;   1. Do initial setup, and determine the heading between particle centers
;;      (call it theta).
;;   2. Convert the representation of the velocity of each particle from
;;      speed/heading to a theta-based vector whose first component is the
;;      particle's speed along theta, and whose second component is the speed
;;      perpendicular to theta.
;;   3. Modify the velocity vectors to reflect the effects of the collision.
;;      This involves:
;;        a. computing the velocity of the center of mass of the whole system
;;           along direction theta
;;        b. updating the along-theta components of the two velocity vectors.
;;   4. Convert from the theta-based vector representation of velocity back to
;;      the usual speed/heading representation for each particle.
;;   5. Perform final cleanup and update derived quantities.

to collide-with [ other-particle ] ;; particle procedure
  ;;; PHASE 1: initial setup
  ;; for convenience, grab some quantities from other-particle
  let mass2 [mass] of other-particle
  let speed2 [speed] of other-particle
  let heading2 [heading] of other-particle
  ;; since particles are modeled as zero-size points, theta isn't meaningfully
  ;; defined. we can assign it randomly without affecting the model's outcome.
  let theta (random-float 360)

  ;;; PHASE 2: convert velocities to theta-based vector representation
  ;; now convert my velocity from speed/heading representation to components
  ;; along theta and perpendicular to theta
  let v1t (speed * cos (theta - heading))
  let v1l (speed * sin (theta - heading))
  ;; do the same for other-particle
  let v2t (speed2 * cos (theta - heading2))
  let v2l (speed2 * sin (theta - heading2))

  ;;; PHASE 3: manipulate vectors to implement collision
  ;; compute the velocity of the system's center of mass along theta
  let vcm (((mass * v1t) + (mass2 * v2t)) / (mass + mass2) )
  ;; now compute the new velocity for each particle along direction theta.
  ;; velocity perpendicular to theta is unaffected by a collision along theta,
  ;; so the next two lines actually implement the collision itself, in the
  ;; sense that the effects of the collision are exactly the following changes
  ;; in particle velocity.
  set v1t (2 * vcm - v1t)
  set v2t (2 * vcm - v2t)

  ;;; PHASE 4: convert back to normal speed/heading
  ;; now convert my velocity vector into my new speed and heading
  set speed sqrt ((v1t * v1t) + (v1l * v1l))
  set energy (0.5 * mass * speed * speed)
  ;; if the magnitude of the velocity vector is 0, atan is undefined. but
  ;; speed will be 0, so heading is irrelevant anyway. therefore, in that
  ;; case we'll just leave it unmodified.
  if v1l != 0 or v1t != 0
    [ set heading (theta - (atan v1l v1t)) ]
  ;; and do the same for other-particle
  ask other-particle [ set speed sqrt ((v2t * v2t) + (v2l * v2l)) ]
  ask other-particle [ set energy 0.5 * mass * speed * speed ]
  if v2l != 0 or v2t != 0
    [ ask other-particle [ set heading (theta - (atan v2l v2t)) ] ]

  ;; PHASE 5: final updates
  ;; now recolor, since color is based on quantities that may have changed
  recolor
  ask other-particle
    [ recolor ]
end 

to recolor  ;; particle procedure
  ifelse speed < (0.5 * 10)
  [
    set color blue
  ]
  [
    ifelse speed > (1.5 * 10)
      [ set color red ]
      [ set color green ]
  ]
end 

to fade-patches
  let trace-patches patches with [(pcolor != yellow) and (pcolor != black)]
  ifelse any? trace-patches
    [ ask trace-patches
      [ set pcolor ( pcolor - 0.4 )
        if (not trace?) or (round pcolor = black)
          [ set pcolor black ] ] ]
    [ set fade-needed? false ]
end 
;;;
;;; drawing procedures
;;;
;; draws the box

to make-box
  ask patches with [ ((abs pxcor = box-edge) and (abs pycor <= box-edge)) or
                     ((abs pycor = box-edge) and (abs pxcor <= box-edge)) ]
    [ set pcolor yellow ]
end 
;; creates initial particles

to make-particles
  create-ordered-particles number-of-particles
  [
    setup-particle
    random-position
    recolor
  ]
  calculate-tick-length
end 

to setup-particle  ;; particle procedure
  set speed init-particle-speed
  set mass particle-mass
  set energy (0.5 * mass * speed * speed)
  set last-collision nobody
  set wall-hits 0
  set momentum-difference 0
end 
;; place particle at random location inside the box.

to random-position ;; particle procedure
  setxy ((1 - box-edge) + random-float ((2 * box-edge) - 2))
        ((1 - box-edge) + random-float ((2 * box-edge) - 2))
  set heading random-float 360
end 
;;; plotting procedures

to setup-plots
  set-current-plot "Speed Counts"
  set-plot-y-range 0 ceiling (number-of-particles / 6)
end 

to setup-histograms
  set-current-plot "Speed Histogram"
  set-plot-x-range 0 (init-particle-speed * 2)
  set-plot-y-range 0 ceiling (number-of-particles / 6)
  set-current-plot-pen "medium"
  set-histogram-num-bars 40
  set-current-plot-pen "slow"
  set-histogram-num-bars 40
  set-current-plot-pen "fast"
  set-histogram-num-bars 40
  set-current-plot-pen "init-avg-speed"
  draw-vert-line init-avg-speed
  set-current-plot "Energy Histogram"
  set-plot-x-range 0 (0.5 * (init-particle-speed * 2) * (init-particle-speed * 2) * particle-mass)
  set-plot-y-range 0 ceiling (number-of-particles / 6)
  set-current-plot-pen "medium"
  set-histogram-num-bars 40
  set-current-plot-pen "slow"
  set-histogram-num-bars 40
  set-current-plot-pen "fast"
  set-histogram-num-bars 40
  set-current-plot-pen "init-avg-energy"
  draw-vert-line init-avg-energy
end 

to do-plotting
  set-current-plot "Pressure vs. Time"
  if length pressure-history > 0
    [ plotxy ticks (mean last-n 3 pressure-history) ]
  set-current-plot "Speed Counts"
  set-current-plot-pen "fast"
  plot fast
  set-current-plot-pen "medium"
  plot medium
  set-current-plot-pen "slow"
  plot slow
  if ticks > 1
  [
     set-current-plot "Wall Hits per Particle"
     plotxy ticks wall-hits-per-particle
  ]
  plot-histograms
end 

to plot-histograms
  set-current-plot "Energy histogram"
  set-current-plot-pen "fast"
  histogram [ energy ] of particles with [color = red]
  set-current-plot-pen "medium"
  histogram [ energy ] of particles with [color = green]
  set-current-plot-pen "slow"
  histogram [ energy ] of particles with [color = blue]
  set-current-plot-pen "avg-energy"
  plot-pen-reset
  draw-vert-line avg-energy
  set-current-plot "Speed histogram"
  set-current-plot-pen "fast"
  histogram [ speed ] of particles with [color = red]
  set-current-plot-pen "medium"
  histogram [ speed ] of particles with [color = green]
  set-current-plot-pen "slow"
  histogram [ speed ] of particles with [color = blue]
  set-current-plot-pen "avg-speed"
  plot-pen-reset
  draw-vert-line avg-speed
end 
;; histogram procedure

to draw-vert-line [ xval ]
  plotxy xval plot-y-min
  plot-pen-down
  plotxy xval plot-y-max
  plot-pen-up
end 

to-report last-n [n the-list]
  ifelse n >= length the-list
    [ report the-list ]
    [ report last-n n butfirst the-list ]
end 

to make-clocker
  set-default-shape clockers "clocker"
  create-ordered-clockers 1
  [
    setxy (box-edge - 5) (box-edge - 5)
    set color violet + 2
    set size 10
    set heading 0
  ]
end 

There are 2 versions of this model.

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Uri Wilensky over 12 years ago GasLab New Benchmark Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 12 years ago GasLab New Benchmark Download this version

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