Balassa-Samuelson

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Default-person michael hardaker (Author)

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globals [
  UK-TG-Patches
  UK-TG-Price
  UK-TG-Wage
  UK-TG-MPL
  UK-NTG-Patches
  UK-NTG-Price
  UK-NTG-Wage
  UK-NTG-MPL
  PL-TG-Patches
  PL-TG-Price
  PL-TG-Wage
  PL-NTG-Patches
  PL-NTG-Price
  PL-NTG-Wage
  PL-NTG-MPL
]

breed [ workers worker ]
breed [ goods good ]

workers-own [
  age            ; how old the workers are. if older, they will be less likely to migrate [ to be added ]
  initiative     ; what their natural initiative is. this is moderated by age.
  migrating?     ; true when worker is currently migrating
  job-changer?   ; true when worker is currently in process of switching sectors
]

to setup
  clear-all
  setup-patches
  setup-turtles
  setup-parameters
  reset-ticks
end 

to setup-patches   ; creates sectors for each country
  ask patches [set pcolor gray + 2 ]                                      ; sets background color
  ask patches with [ pxcor = 0 and pycor >= -2] [ set pcolor gray - 2 ]   ; visualizes immobility of labor between countries
  ask patches with [ pycor = 0 ] [ set pcolor gray - 2 ]                  ; visualizes immobility of labor between sectors
  open-close-border                                                       ; matches "barrier" visual with open and closed borders
  open-close-sectors                                                      ; matches "barrier" visual with open sector movement within countires
  set UK-TG-Patches patches with [pxcor < -4 and pycor > 2]               ; the following color the sector and country patches
  ask UK-TG-Patches [ set pcolor blue + 2 ]

  set UK-NTG-Patches patches with [pxcor < -4 and pycor < -2]
  ask UK-NTG-Patches [ set pcolor blue + 3 ]

  set PL-TG-Patches patches with [pxcor > 4 and pycor > 2]
  ask PL-TG-Patches [ set pcolor red + 2 ]

  set PL-NTG-Patches patches with [pxcor > 4 and pycor < -2]
  ask PL-NTG-Patches [ set pcolor red + 3 ]
end 

to open-close-border
  ifelse not open-borders?                                                       ; if borders are closed
  [ ask patches with [ pxcor = 0 and pycor <= -2] [ set pcolor gray - 2 ] ]      ; draw borders
  [ ask patches with [ pxcor = 0 and pycor <= -2] [ set pcolor gray + 2 ] ]      ; else remove borders
end 

to open-close-sectors
  ifelse not allow-sector-mvmt?                                                  ; if sectors are open within countries
  [ ask patches with [ pxcor > 4 and pycor = 0]   [ set pcolor gray - 2 ]        ; draw borders
  ;  ask patches with [ pxcor < -4 and pycor = 0 ] [ set pcolor gray - 2 ] ]     ; INACTIVE WHILE TROUBLESHOOTING: UK and PL sector changes not working together
  ]
  [ ask patches with [ pxcor > 4 and pycor = 0]   [ set pcolor gray + 2 ]        ; else remove borders
      ;  ask patches with [ pxcor < -4 and pycor = 0 ] [ set pcolor gray + 2 ] ] ; INACTIVE WHILE TROUBLESHOOTING: UK and PL sector changes not working together
    ]
end 

to setup-turtles                              ; create 200 total workers, split evenly between sectors and coutnries
  set-default-shape goods "box"
  set-default-shape workers "person"
  create-workers 50 [
    set color blue - 1
    move-to one-of UK-TG-Patches
  ]
    create-workers 50 [
    set color blue - 1
    move-to one-of UK-NTG-Patches
  ]
    create-workers 50 [
    set color red - 1
    move-to one-of PL-TG-Patches
  ]
    create-workers 50 [
    set color red - 1
    move-to one-of PL-NTG-Patches
  ]
  ask workers [
    set heading 0                 ; set headings of workers, to intiialize movement up and down
    set initiative random-float 1 ; gives workers a random propensity to migrate or change jobs from 0 - 0.5
    set migrating? false          ; set default value of not migrating
    set job-changer? false        ; set default value of not changing jobs
  ]
end 

to setup-parameters ;; sets initial values, relationships, and parameters
  set UK-TG-Wage 20
  set UK-TG-MPL 10
  set UK-TG-Price UK-TG-Wage / UK-TG-MPL
  set UK-NTG-Wage 20
  set UK-NTG-MPL 10
  set UK-NTG-Price UK-NTG-Wage / UK-NTG-MPL
  set PL-TG-Wage 10
  set PL-TG-Price PL-TG-Wage / PL-TG-MPL
  set PL-NTG-Wage 10
  set PL-NTG-MPL 10
  set PL-NTG-Price PL-NTG-Wage / PL-NTG-MPL
end 

to go
  arbitrage             ; arbitrage goods between countries, leveling price
  identify-job-changers ; check to see if anyone decides to change sectors
  change-jobs           ; move job changers from one sector to the other
  settle-job-changers   ; adds job changers to new sectors
  identify-migrants     ; check to see if anyone decides to migrate
  migrate               ; move one migrant one at a time to other sector
  settle-migrants       ; adds migrant to working sector
  move-about            ; moves workers within their sector and country
  open-close-border     ; update border status
  open-close-sectors    ; update sector status
  tick
end 

to arbitrage           ; step 1) make goods 2) ship goods 3) recceive goods, updating prices
  ; step 1. make goods
    if not any? goods                                                            ; if no goods are currently transferring (approx. even prices)
  [
    set PL-TG-Price PL-TG-Wage / PL-TG-MPL                                       ; set price relationship
    if UK-TG-Price > PL-TG-Price and abs ( UK-TG-Price - PL-TG-Price ) > 0.01    ; if UK-TG prices are more than 0.01 higher than PL-TG
    [
      ask one-of PL-TG-Patches
      [ sprout-goods 1 [set color yellow set heading 270] ]                      ; make goods at a PL patch
    ]

    if UK-TG-Price < PL-TG-Price and abs ( UK-TG-Price - PL-TG-Price ) > 0.01    ; and UK-TG prices are lower than 0.01 of PL-TG
     [
      ask one-of UK-TG-Patches
      [ sprout-goods 1 [set color yellow set heading 90] ]                       ; make goods at a UK patch
    ]
  ]

  ; step 2. ship goods
  ask goods
    [ fd 2]  ; move goods (quickly) towards their destination


  ; step 3. recieve goods, adjust prices
  ask goods
    [
      if [pcolor] of patch-here = gray + 2       ; if goods are in transport
      [
        if [pcolor] of patch-ahead 2 = blue + 2  ; and they reach the UK border
        [
          set UK-TG-Price UK-TG-Price - 0.001    ; lower UK TG price (by a little, simulating lower market share of PL)
          set PL-TG-Price PL-TG-Price + 0.01     ; and raise PL TG price (this simulates supply/demand of TG)
          set UK-TG-Wage UK-TG-Price * UK-TG-MPL ; change relationship to drive wage up, observing LOP
          set PL-TG-Wage PL-TG-Price * PL-TG-MPL
          die                                    ; remove goods

        ]
        if [pcolor] of patch-ahead 2 = red + 2   ; if goods reach PL border
        [
          set UK-TG-Price UK-TG-Price + 0.01     ; raise UK TG price (simulating supply/demand of TG)
          set PL-TG-Price PL-TG-Price - 0.001    ; and lower PL TG price (by a little, simulating lower market share of PL)
          set UK-TG-Wage UK-TG-Price * UK-TG-MPL ; change relationship to drive wage up, observing LOP
          set PL-TG-Wage PL-TG-Price * PL-TG-MPL
          die                                    ; remove goods
        ]
      ]
    ]
end 

to identify-job-changers ; TROUBLESHOOT: two scenarios currently incompatible with each other
  if allow-sector-mvmt?                          ; if sectors are open and no workers currently changing sectors
  and not any? workers with [job-changer?]       ; and there are no job-changers already
  and not any? workers with [migrating?]         ; and there is no one migrating
  and abs (UK-TG-Price - PL-TG-Price) < 0.02     ; and there is no price disparity of TG goods (within 0.02)
  [
    if abs (PL-TG-Wage - PL-NTG-Wage ) > 0.02    ; if PL wage disparity exists (greater than 0.02)
    [
      if PL-TG-Wage > PL-NTG-Wage                ; and TG wages are higher than NTG wages in PL
      [
        ask one-of workers-on PL-NTG-Patches     ; select one of NTG workers in PLland
        [
          if random-float 1 < initiative         ; change sectors if random no. < worker's initiative
          [
            set job-changer? true set PL-NTG-Wage PL-NTG-Wage + 0.2
          ]
        ]
      ]
      if PL-TG-Wage < PL-NTG-Wage                ; and TG wages are lower than NTG wages in PL
      [
        ask one-of workers-on PL-TG-Patches      ; select one of TG workers in PL
        [
          if random-float 1 < initiative         ; change sectors if random no. < worker's initiative
          [
            set job-changer? true set PL-TG-Wage PL-TG-Wage + 0.2
          ]
        ]
      ]
    ]

; TROUBLESHOOT THIS: If this is active, PL workers will not change job sectors for some reason
;    if abs (UK-TG-Wage - UK-NTG-Wage ) > 0.02
;    [
;      if UK-TG-Wage > UK-NTG-Wage     ; and TG wages are higher than NTG wages in PL
;      [
;        ask one-of workers-on UK-NTG-Patches     ; select one of NTG workers in PLland
;        [
;          if random-float 1 < initiative; change sectors if random no. < worker's initiative
;          [
;            set job-changer? true set UK-NTG-Wage UK-NTG-Wage + 0.2
;          ]
;        ]
;     ]
;     if UK-TG-Wage < UK-NTG-Wage     ; and TG wages are lower than NTG wages in PL
;      [
;        ask one-of workers-on UK-TG-Patches     ; select one of TG workers in PL
;        [
;          if random-float 1 < initiative; change sectors if random no. < worker's initiative
;         [
;          set job-changer? true set PL-TG-Wage PL-TG-Wage + 0.2
;         ]
;       ]
;      ]
;    ]
  ]
end 

to change-jobs
  ask workers with [ pxcor > 0 ]           ; ask workers on right side of map (in Poland)
  [
    if job-changer?                        ; if they are changing jobs
    [
      ifelse PL-TG-Wage > PL-NTG-Wage      ; if TG wages is higher
      [ set heading 0 ]                    ; workers looks look torwards TG sector
      [ set heading 180 ]                  ; otherwise, look towards NTG sector
      fd 1
    ]
  ]

  ask workers with [ pxcor < 0 ]           ; ask workers on left side of map (in UK)
  [
    if job-changer?                        ; if they are changing jobs
    [
      ifelse UK-TG-Wage > UK-NTG-Wage      ; if TG wages is higher
      [ set heading 0 ]                    ; workers looks look torwards TG sector
      [ set heading 180 ]                  ; otherwise, look towards NTG sector
      fd 1
    ]
  ]
end 

to settle-job-changers
    ask workers
  [
    if job-changer?
    [
      if PL-TG-Wage >= PL-NTG-Wage and [pcolor] of patch-here = red + 2  ; if job changers on higher wage patch (PL TG)
      [
        move-to one-of PL-TG-Patches                                     ; add to TG sector
        set job-changer? false
        set heading 0
        set PL-TG-Wage PL-TG-Wage - 0.2                                  ; lower wages due to supply/demand of labor in TG sector
        set PL-TG-Price PL-TG-Wage / PL-TG-MPL
      ]
      if PL-TG-Wage <= PL-NTG-Wage and [pcolor] of patch-here = red + 3  ; if job changers on higher wage patch (PL NTG)
      [
        move-to one-of PL-NTG-Patches                                    ; add to NTG sector
        set job-changer? false
        set heading 0
        set PL-NTG-Wage PL-NTG-Wage - 0.2                                ; lower wages due to supply/demand of labor in NTG sector
        set PL-NTG-Price PL-NTG-Wage / PL-NTG-MPL
      ]

      if UK-TG-Wage >= UK-NTG-Wage and [pcolor] of patch-here = blue + 2 ; if job changers on higher wage patch (UK TG)
      [
        move-to one-of UK-TG-Patches                                     ; add to TG sector
        set migrating? false
        set heading 0
        set UK-TG-Wage UK-TG-Wage - 0.2                                  ; lower wages due to supply/demand of labor in TG sector
        set UK-TG-Price UK-TG-Wage / UK-TG-MPL
      ]
      if UK-TG-Wage <= UK-NTG-Wage and [pcolor] of patch-here = blue + 3 ; if job changers on higher wage patch (UK NTG)
      [
        move-to one-of UK-NTG-Patches                                    ; add to NTG sector
        set migrating? false
        set heading 0
        set UK-NTG-Wage UK-NTG-Wage - 0.2                                ; lower wages due to supply/demand of labor in NTG sector
        set UK-NTG-Price UK-NTG-Wage / UK-TG-MPL
      ]
    ]
  ]
end 

to identify-migrants     ; selects migrants. Done one worker at a time for visual reasons
  if open-borders?
  and not any? workers with [migrating?]
  and not any? workers with [job-changer?]                       ; if borders are open and no workers currently migrating or changing jobs
  [
    if UK-NTG-Wage > PL-NTG-Wage                                 ; and UK-NTG wages are higher
    [
      ask one-of workers-on PL-NTG-Patches                       ; select one of NTG workers in PLland
      [
        if random-float 1 < initiative + mvmt-bias-towards-UK    ; migrate if random no. < worker's initiative + movement bias towards UK
        [
          set migrating? true set PL-NTG-Wage PL-NTG-Wage + 0.2
        ]
      ]
    ]
    if UK-NTG-Wage < PL-NTG-Wage                                 ; if PL-NTG wages are higher
    [
      ask one-of workers-on UK-NTG-Patches                       ; select one of NTG workers in UK
      [
        if random-float 1 < initiative + mvmt-bias-towards-PL    ; migrate if random no. < worker's initiative + movement bias towards PL
        [
          set migrating? true set UK-NTG-Wage UK-NTG-Wage + 0.2
        ]
      ]
    ]
  ]
end 

to migrate
  ask workers
  [
    if migrating?                       ; if they are migrating
    [
      ifelse UK-NTG-Wage > PL-NTG-Wage  ; if UK wage is higher
      [ set heading 270 ]               ; workers looks towards UK
      [ set heading 90 ]                ; otherwise, PL wage higher and workers look towards PL
      fd 1
    ]
  ]
end 

to settle-migrants
  ask workers
  [
    if migrating?
    [
      if UK-NTG-Wage >= PL-NTG-Wage and [pcolor] of patch-here = blue + 3 ; if migrants on higher wage patch
      [
        move-to one-of UK-NTG-Patches                                     ; add to UK workforce
        set migrating? false
        set heading 0
        set UK-NTG-Wage UK-NTG-Wage - 0.2                                 ; lower wages due to supply/demand of labor in UK
      ]
      if UK-NTG-Wage <= PL-NTG-Wage and [pcolor] of patch-here = red + 3  ; when migrant reaches PL
      [
        move-to one-of PL-NTG-Patches                                     ; add to PL workforce
        set migrating? false
        set heading 0
        set PL-NTG-Wage PL-NTG-Wage - 0.2                                 ; lower wages due to supply/demand of labor in PL
      ]
    ]
  ]
  set UK-NTG-Price UK-NTG-Wage / UK-NTG-MPL
  set PL-NTG-Price PL-NTG-Wage / PL-NTG-MPL
end 

to move-about
  ask workers [
    if not migrating? and not job-changer?                                ; if workers aren't migrating
    [
    if abs pycor = max-pycor or [pcolor] of patch-ahead 1 = gray + 2      ; avoid edges of sector and map
      [ set heading (180 - heading) ]
  fd 1                                                                    ; and move forward
  ]
  ]
end 

There is only one version of this model, created over 1 year ago by michael hardaker.

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