Chain reaction with moderator and the two isotopes of Uran

Chain reaction with moderator and the two isotopes of Uran preview image

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WHAT IS IT?

This simple model illustrates how a nuclear reator or atomic bomb works and in particular how much of the fission energy in URAN-235 is detonated. The number of initial Uran-235 nucleis can be varied with a slider. Upon "go" one neutron is fired from the middle area. In some case this neutron escapes the area without hitting a Uran-235 nuclei and then nothing id detonated. If a neutron hits a Uran235 nuceli a Uran-236 nuclei is formed (this isotop is in a unstable excited state). The Uran-235 nucleis are blue and the Uran-236 are green.

The decay-konstant for Uran-236 kan also be varied, but eventually they will decay and the daugther nuceli is respresented by one white dot.

HOW TO USE IT

Try to see how the number of URAN235 versus URAN238 changes the percentage of fissioned materiale

THINGS TO NOTICE

The number of simulations, that is averaged over is set inside the code. The number of initial neutrons can be important.

THINGS TO TRY

EXTENDING THE MODEL

The model can be extended by adding deacy of the daugther nuclei, or adding energy-momentum conservation. Several other features.

NETLOGO FEATURES

RELATED MODELS

GasLab Free Gas

CREDITS AND REFERENCES

Author: Solveig Skadhauge (after work of Birgitte Thestrup Nielsen)

CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

The model is based on part of the Netlogo model "GasLab Free Gas"

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Click to Run Model

globals
[
  decay-constant number-of-simulations count-simulation average
]

Breed [ Neutrons   Neutron ]
Breed [ Moderators   moderator ]
Breed [ URAN235s  URAN235 ]
Breed [ URAN236s  URAN236 ]
Breed [ URAN238s  URAN238 ]
Breed [ DaugtherXs  DaugtherX ]
Breed [ DaugtherYs  DaugtherY ]   ; Programmet anvender kun en datterkerne, men i virkeligheden, burde der være to

Neutrons-own [ speed ]

;; procedure for setup button

to setup
  clear-all
  set number-of-simulations 10            ;; Her ændres på antallet af simuleringer som man midler over.
  set average 0
  set count-simulation 1
  set-default-shape Moderators "molecule water"
  set-default-shape Neutrons "dot"
  set-default-shape URAN235s "orbit 6"
  set-default-shape URAN236s "orbit 6"
  set-default-shape URAN238s "orbit 6"
  set-default-shape DaugtherXs "dot"
  setup-particles                                        ;; restarts tick-counter
end 

to setup-particles
  create-URAN235s number-URAN235 [setup-URAN235s ]
  create-URAN238s number-URAN238 [setup-URAN238s ]
  create-Moderators number-moderator [setup-moderators ]
  fire-Neutron
  reset-ticks
end 

to setup-Neutrons
  set color red
  set size 1
  set speed 2
  set heading random 360
end 

to setup-moderators
   set color orange
   set size 2
   setxy random-xcor random-ycor
end 

to setup-URAN235s
   set color blue
   set size 1
   setxy random-xcor random-ycor
end 

to setup-URAN238s
   set color yellow
   set size 1
   setxy random-xcor random-ycor
end 

to setup-URAN236
  set size 1
  set color green
end 

;; procedure for go/stop buttom

to go
  move-Neutrons
  decay
  react
  if (not any? Neutrons) and (not any? URAN236s)
  [ if-else count-simulation < number-of-simulations
    [ print ( number-URAN235 - count URAN235s ) / number-URAN235
      set count-simulation (count-simulation + 1)
      set average (average + count URAN235s)
      ask turtles [die]
      setup-particles
      clear-all-plots
    ]
    [ print ( number-URAN235 - count URAN235s ) / number-URAN235
      type "Middelværdi: "
      print (number-of-simulations * number-URAN235 - (average + count URAN235s)) / (number-of-simulations * number-URAN235)
      print "nu stopper programmet"
      stop
    ]
  ]
  tick
end 

to fire-Neutron           ; Her dannes et antal neutroner - evt. undersg om antallet er stabilt.
  create-Neutrons 10
  [
    setup-Neutrons
    setxy 0 0
    set heading random 360
  ]
end 

to move-Neutrons
  ask Neutrons
  [
  if-else not can-move? ( speed * 1 )
    [ die ]
    [forward (speed * 1 )]
  ]
end 

;; procedure for fusion of particles to something kin of compund nucleus

to react
  ask Neutrons with [speed = 2]
  [
   if any? URAN235s-here
    [
     if (random-float 1 < 0.1 )
     [
      hatch-URAN236s 1 [setup-URAN236]
        ask one-of URAN235s-here [ die ]
        ask one-of Neutrons-here [ die ]
     ]
    ]
  if any? URAN238s-here
    [
      die
    ]
  if any? Moderators-here
    [
      set speed  1
    ]
  ]
  ask Neutrons with [speed = 1]
  [
   if any? URAN235s-here
   [
     if (random-float 1 < 0.9 )
     [
       hatch-URAN236s 1 [setup-URAN236]
       ask one-of URAN235s-here [ die ]
       ask one-of Neutrons-here [ die ]
     ]
    ]
  ]
end 

to decay
  ask URAN236s[
    if (random-float 1 < 0.1 )[
      hatch-neutrons 2 [setup-Neutrons]
      set color white
      hatch-DaugtherXs 1
      die
    ]
  ]
end 

There are 2 versions of this model.

Uploaded by When Description Download
Solveig Skadhauge 6 months ago author is corrected in the info Download this version
Solveig Skadhauge 6 months ago Initial upload Download this version

Attached files

File Type Description Last updated
Chain reaction with moderator and the two isotopes of Uran.png preview Preview for 'Chain reaction with moderator and the two isotopes of Uran' 6 months ago, by Solveig Skadhauge Download

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