Local Policing and Colorism

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Default-person Henry Smart III (Author)

Tags

behavioral decision making 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

colorism 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

decision making 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

police 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

policing 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

racism 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

skin color  

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

skin color 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

skin color! 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

skin colorX 

Tagged by Henry Smart III 11 months ago

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WHAT IS IT?

This project models the policing behavior of two types of local-level police-agents based on the phenomena of colorism. Colorism is the preferential treatment of people with light skin and discrimination against people with dark skin (Russell et al 2013). The red police-agents (c-police) represent police officers whose policing decisions are influenced by colorism. The green police-agents (police) represent police officers whose policing decisions are not influenced by colorism. The three breeds of citizen-agents (darks, mediums, and lights) represent the complete skin color spectrum of the citizenry. The patch space is divided into three zones. The top zone, represented by white patches, is the ideal space-free society. The middle zone, represented by orange patches, is the detainment space. The detainment space represents all criminal justice functions except for incarceration. The bottom zone, represented by red patches, is the incarceration space. The incarceration space represents imprisonment. The simulation demonstrates how individual policing decisions, biased or not, might impact long-term incarceration outcomes. In addition, the simulation demonstrates the role that organizational socialization plays in the transference of colorism. The project draws from several streams of logic, which include colorism, risk perception and organizational socialization.

HOW IT WORKS / HOW TO USE IT

Click the SETUP button to stage the model. Adjust the number of c-police, police, darks, mediums and lights to a preferred number. Ticks represent an abstract unit of time. Click the GO button to start the simulation with one time tick. Click the GO - continuous button to start the simulation with continuous time ticks. There are two major functions of the model, policing and the transfer of biased decision-making models.

POLICING At each tick, police randomly patrol the free space with an attempt to make an arrest. If there are no available citizens to arrest (citizens located one patch away from the officer in all four directions-north, south, east and west), the police officer will move to the next random patch/cell in the free space. At the time of an arrest, the citizen-agents that reside on the four neighboring patches (north, south, east and west) of the arresting officer will receive a charge. A (biased) c-police adds two (2) charges to a dark citizen's rap-sheet, one (1) charge to a medium citizen's rap-sheet and 3/4 (0.75) of a charge to a light citizen's rap-sheet. A (fair) police adds one (1) charge to all four surrounding citizen-agents regardless of their skin color. Each time a citizen is arrested they will move to the detainment area for one tick and immediately return to a random patch/cell in the free space. Once a citizen's rap-sheet is equal to or goes beyond three (3) charges, the citizen will be permanently placed in the incarceration space.

TRANSFER OF BIASED DECISION-MAKING MODELS / ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION The rules are intended to simulate the transfer of bias from one police officer to another. At each tick, a (fair) police checks to see if there is a c-police within close proximity (1 patch/cell). If this condition is true, the police's convert counter is increased by 1. Once the convert counter reaches 2, a (fair) police will be converted to a (biased) c-police.

STOPPING THE MODEL The model will stop running if the Go - continuous button is pressed a second time, or when the free space no longer contains citizen-agents.

THINGS TO NOTICE

There are four plots to the right of activity area. The top plot tracks the number of (biased) c-police to (fair) police. As police-to-c-police conversion [transference] takes place, pay attention to what happens in the plight plots. You should see a strong correlation between the conversions and the plight of dark citizens and a moderate correlation between the conversions and medium citizens. However, this may not occur if some of the initial slider settings are skewed too far to the left or right.

The plight plot comparisons enable the detection of shifts in the free population and the incarcerated population. Take notice of the varied results.

THINGS TO TRY

MODELING BASED ON THE U.S. POPULATION To emulate the U.S. population size, use these numbers for your staging: 796 lights, 218 mediums, 167 darks, 1 c-police and 2 police (or 2 c-police and 1 police).

THE TRANSFERENCE OF COLORISM To model an equal starting point of fair and biased policing, set the c-police and police sliders to the same number (e.g., c-police = 20 and police = 20). Transference of colorism is somewhat easier to observe when there is an equal number of c-police and police.

TOTAL FAIR-POLICING To model absolute fair-policing, set the slider for c-police to zero (0) and select a random setting (other than zero) for the police slider.

TOTAL BIASED-POLICING To model absolute biased-policing, set the slider for police to zero (0) and select a random setting (other than zero) for the c-police slider.

EXTENDING THE MODEL

This model was developed by a novice coder, so there is plenty of opportunity to extend the model. Firstly, coders are encouraged to flatten the code. In its current state, no bugs were detected, but a more concise code-set may add validity to the model.

In its current state, the model can only simulate a few theories. Coders should consider other theories, such as the effects of the "return to free society", the outcomes of fair policing but biased "return to free society" or any combination of the available policing and justice theories.

RELATED MODELS

Those interested in the topic of colorism or population outcomes should also review the segregation model (http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Segregation).

CREDITS AND REFERENCES

Credit: Reese, Dean. YouTube, (2014) if then 3 in NetLogo. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOEKr0cnKXw#t=78.82102

Credit: Reese, Dean. YouTube, (2014) in-radius die in NetLogo. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eQO92ZvaP-Q

Credit: Rand, W., Wilensky, U. (2007). NetLogo El Farol model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/ElFarol. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Credit: Wilensky, U. (1997). NetLogo Segregation model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Segregation. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Reference: Russell, K., Wilson, M., & Hall, R. (2013). The color complex (revised): The politics of skin color in a new millennium. Anchor.

Reference: Van Maanen, J. (1975). Police socialization: A longitudinal examination of job attitudes in an urban police department. Administrative Science Quarterly, 207-228.

Reference: Lupton, D. (1999). Risk: key ideas. Risk: key ideas. Routledge.

Creation Date: 4/9/16 Last Updated: 10/26/17 Author: Henry Smart, III Email: hsmartiii@gmail.com

Notes: This model was designed using NetLogo 5.3.1. The author can be reached via email at hsmartiii@gmail.com. If you use any portion of this model, please properly site the project and the author.

Comments and Questions

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Click to Run Model

;; models the transference of colorism in one direction, police learn from cpolice.
;; Written in NetLogo
;; Author: Henry Smart
;; Creation Date: April 9, 2016
;; Last Update: October 26, 2017

globals [
  free-patches             ;; space, group of patches that represent the ideal (free) space for citizen-agents
  detainment-patches       ;; space, group of patches that represent the detainment area for citizen-agents
  incarceration-patches    ;; space, group of patches that represent the incarceration area for citizen-agents
]

;;citizen agents
breed [darks dark]         ;;represenative of dark skin color
breed [mediums medium]     ;;representative of medium skin color
breed [lights light]       ;;represenative of light skin color

;;police agents
breed [cpolices cpolice]   ;;police officers influenced by colorism
breed [polices police]     ;;police officers not influenced by colorism

;;rap - represents a citizen-agent's rapsheet, increases with each detainment
darks-own [rap]
mediums-own [rap]
lights-own [rap]

;;convert counter - keeps track of the interactions between police and cpolice. Once a police covert-counter reaches a count of 2, the decision making model coverts from police to cpolice.

polices-own [convert]
cpolices-own [convert]

to setup
  clear-all

  ;; create free-patches
  set free-patches patches with [pycor >= 1 and pycor <= 30]
  ask free-patches [ set pcolor white ]

  ;; create detainment-patches
  set detainment-patches patches with [pycor >= -9 and pycor <= 0]
  ask detainment-patches [ set pcolor orange ]

  ;; create incarceration-patches
  set incarceration-patches patches with [pycor >= -30 and pycor <= -10]
  ask incarceration-patches [ set pcolor red ]

  ;;create citizen-agents (darks, mediums and lights) and police-agents (polices and cpolices)

  create-darks #-of-darks [          ;;creates citizen-gents with dark skin color
    set shape "person"
    set rap 0
    set size 1
    set color black
    set label rap
    set label-color red
    move-to one-of free-patches with [count turtles-here = 0]
    ]

  create-mediums #-of-mediums [      ;;creates citizen-gents with medium skin color
    set shape "person"
    set rap 0
    set size 1
    set color brown
    set label rap
    set label-color red
    move-to one-of free-patches with [count turtles-here = 0]
    ]

  create-lights #-of-lights [        ;;creates citizen-gents with light skin color
    set shape "person"
    set rap 0
    set size 1
    set color yellow
    set label rap
    set label-color red
    move-to one-of free-patches with [count turtles-here = 0]
    ]

  create-cpolices #-of-cpolice [     ;;creates police-agents influenced by colorism
    set shape "police"
    set size 1
    set color red
    set convert 2
    move-to one-of free-patches with [count turtles-here = 0]
    ]

  create-polices #-of-police [       ;;creates police-agents not influenced by colorism
    set shape "police"
    set size 1
    set color green
    set convert 0
    move-to one-of free-patches with [count turtles-here = 0]
    ]

  reset-ticks
end 

to go

  ask darks [
    set label rap
    set label-color red
    ]

  ask mediums [
    set label rap
    set label-color red
    ]

  ask lights [
    set label rap
    set label-color red
    ]

  ask cpolices [                                                                    ;;starts cpolicing of the free-patches
    move-to one-of free-patches
    ]

  ask polices [                                                                     ;;starts policing of the free-patches
    move-to one-of free-patches
    ]

  ask polices [                                                                     ;;increases polices convert counter by 1
    if any? cpolices
    in-radius 1
    [set convert convert + 1]
    ]

  ask polices [                                                                     ;;converts police to cpolice after two interactions
    if convert >= 2 [
    set breed cpolices
    set shape "police"
    set color red
    ]]

  ask darks                                                                         ;;procedure for detainment of darks by cpolice and intiation of rapsheet tally
    with[pcolor = white] [
    if any? turtles with [shape = "police" and color = red and pcolor = white]
    in-radius 1
    [move-to one-of detainment-patches set rap rap + 2]
    ]

  ask mediums                                                                       ;;procedure for detainment of mediums by cpolice and intiation of rapsheet tally
    with[pcolor = white] [
    if any? turtles with [shape = "police" and color = red and pcolor = white]
    in-radius 1
    [move-to one-of detainment-patches set rap rap + 1]
    ]

  ask lights                                                                        ;;procedure for detainment of lights by cpolice and intiation of rapsheet tally
    with[pcolor = white] [
    if any? turtles with [shape = "police" and color = red and pcolor = white]
    in-radius 1
    [move-to one-of detainment-patches set rap rap + 0.75]
    ]

  ask darks                                                                         ;;procedure for detainment of darks by police and intiation of rapsheet tally
    with[pcolor = white] [
    if any? turtles with [shape = "police" and color = green and pcolor = white]
    in-radius 1
    [move-to one-of detainment-patches set rap rap + 1]
    ]

  ask mediums                                                                       ;;procedure for detainment of mediums by police and intiation of rapsheet tally
    with[pcolor = white] [
    if any? turtles with [shape = "police" and color = green and pcolor = white]
    in-radius 1
    [move-to one-of detainment-patches set rap rap + 1]
    ]

  ask lights                                                                        ;;procedure for detainment of lights by police and intiation of rapsheet tally
    with[pcolor = white] [
    if any? turtles with [shape = "police" and color = green and pcolor = white]
    in-radius 1
    [move-to one-of detainment-patches set rap rap + 1]
    ]

  ask turtles                                                                       ;;returns detained citizen-agents to free-society
    with [pcolor = orange and shape = "person"][
    move-to one-of free-patches forward 2]

  ask turtles                                                                       ;;incarcerates citizen-agents based on a three-strike rule
    with [pcolor = white and shape = "person"][
    if rap >= 3 [
    move-to one-of incarceration-patches]
    ]

if not any? turtles with [pcolor = white and shape = "person"] [stop]

  tick
end 

There is only one version of this model, created 11 months ago by Henry Smart III.

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